Ktg - decoding results: what should be the rate of hormones during pregnancy

Ktg by figo suspicious what it means

Cardiography is a diagnostic procedure necessary for Future heart rate estimates and the degree of reduction of the uterine muscles. It allows you to identify the pathology of the heart and take the necessary measures as early as possible. Conducting the procedure starts from the 32nd lapse of the fetus.

For what is carried out

The heart of the child begins to form on the fifth week of pregnancy. The supply of heart muscles nerves ends only by the 27th week.

Starting from the 28th week, the heart and nervous system are a single mechanism. This means that the active movements of the kid reflected on the heartbeat.

KTG allows you to determine not only the condition of the child, but also diagnose congenital anomalies, such as the:

  • anemia;
  • Malovodie;
  • hypoxia;
  • Fetoplacentar insufficiency;
  • Heart diseases.

Cardiographograph is a device with several sensors.

The strain gauge sensor fixes the uterine abbreviations.

Cardiomonitors show the nature of the motor activity of the child. Ultrasonic sensor determines Movement of heart valves .

Usually, the study of the child's heartbeat is carried out in scheduled mode.

Additionally, diagnostic manipulations are prescribed in the following cases:

  • the presence of a woman of chronic diseases;
  • Prerequisites for the change in the volume of spindle water;
  • placental pathologies found in ultrasound;
  • High The likelihood of premature births ;
  • Gestosis;
  • Negative rhesus factor in a woman;
  • Most umbilical fetal;
  • The presence of a scar on the uterus.

Diagnostics indicators are calculated automatically. When summarizing the results is amended. During this period, the heart palpitation is calm. If the baby does not want to wake up, the woman needs to move or eat a couple of chocolate lobs.

With normal pregnancy flow cardiotokography spend every 7-10 days starting from the 32nd week. But sometimes they do and after the 28th week. With complicated course of pregnancy, the frequency of visits to the medical office is 5-7 days.

In case of suspicion of oxygen starvation, research is carried out every day or every other day. After stabilizing the state of the fetus, visits to female consultation are carried out every week.

If the child during the diagnostic session does not show activity, it can be transferred to another day.

Principle of procedure

KTG is carried out according to certain rules. Violation of technology is fraught with obtaining false results. Pregnant is placed on the couch in the position lying on the side.

It is necessary in order to Avoid pressure on the lower hollow vein . The ultrasonic sensor is installed in accordance with the position of the fetus.

A special gel is applied to it. The strain gauge sensor is placed in the bottom of the uterus. It is not necessary to lubricate it gel.

In the hands of the future mother there is a remote control to be pressed during the movements of the fetus. In total, the procedure is carried out 40 minutes.

Special preparation does not require research. It is desirable to empty the intestines and the bladder. Before the procedure, it is necessary to have a snack. This will avoid uncomfortable sensations. Sometimes doctors advise to eat before visiting the medical office of sweet food. it Increases the activity of the child in the womb .

Decoding results

How to decrypt the result of the CTG, tells the attending physician. When evaluating the health of the child, the following indicators are taken into account:

  • The variability is the difference between short-term heap rhythm and basal frequency.
  • Ackeeration is a dechecond healing of heartbeat for more than 15 blows every 60 seconds.
  • The basal rhythm is the average indicator indicating the level of the fetal heart rate at rest.
  • Indicator deceration Indicates a deceleration of the heartbeat by more than 15 blows in a dechenecond gap. Deteruration is divided into DIP3, DIP2 and DIP1. The most critical is the DIP3 indicator. It testifies to the lack of oxygen.

Tip! The ideal result of cardiotokography is extremely rare. Minor deviations from the norm should not cause panic.

The results exhibits scores on the Fisher and Krebs scale. Indicators are assigned a digit from 0 to 2 units. Total The verdict makes a computer program . This allows you to avoid subjectivity when evaluating heartbeat.

Normal indicators

Decoding results are made taking into account the established benchmarks. Upon receipt of controversial data, the study is carried out re-on the other day. The following parameters indicate for healthy pregnancy.

  • Indicator variability In the interval from 5 to 25 shots per minute;
  • lack of deceration;
  • Basal rhythm varies from 120 to 160 strokes per minute;
  • Ktg 9 points or 10 on the Krebs scale;
  • The presence of five accelerations per hour of procedure.

10 points on Fisher - the norm. In this case, you can not worry about the child's condition. CTG 9 points is considered an average rate. Evaluation 8 points - lower boundaries .

Regarding this result, the opinion of the doctors will differ. Usually doctors are reinsured by appointing a woman additional research.

To eliminate possible complications, the patient is recommended to walk more and avoid stressful situations. When re-conducting the procedure, there are often 8 points transformed into CTG 9 points.

KTG 7 points - a controversial result, the presence of which requires additional research. If after a week of ktg 7 points, it is necessary to take appropriate measures. The indicator below 6 points indicates the high probability of fetal hypoxia. In this case, the patient is urgently hospitalized.

It is important! Polyvitamins and vitamins for pregnant women: what better in 1 trimester

Estimation below 4 points indicates Strong oxygen starvation . This state is considered critical. This situation shows an immediate delivery. It may be necessary to conduct an emergency cesarean section.

Suspicious cardiotokography

The following variants of cardiographography speak about the development of pathological processes:

  • Lambda Rhythm Indicates Pupil Transmission . It is characterized by changing the deceration of activation.
  • The monotonous or dumb CTG is distinguished by the heaps of heartbeat when the basal rhythm is found within the norm. The diagram represents a straight line.
  • The sinusoidal CTG indicates the lack of oxygen in the fetus. Schematically represented in the form of sinusoids. In rare cases, this type of cardiotokography talks about the reception of a woman of psychotropic drugs or drugs.

The following indicators consider conditionally pathological: the deviation of the rhythm variability, the appearance of decerations after activation and low activity of the child.

Such signs may indicate inflammatory process in fruit shells , vices of the heart and hemolytic disease.

A visual assessment of the results is divided into three varieties: normal, pathological and suspicious. These parameters were presented in 1985 by the FIGO Committee.

!How to take Eleut Pronatal: Instructions for use during pregnancy

Sometimes in the results of the study they write that KTG on Figo is suspicious. What it means and how to solve the situation, a gynecologist will tell. In this case There is a risk of hypoxia . Panaching about this is not worth it, it will aggravate the situation. In the results in this case, such data will be detected:

  • lack of accelerations;
  • Basal rhythm in the range of 150-170 or 100-110 shots per minute;
  • The presence of not heavy sporadic deceptors;
  • The amplitude of the basal rhythm from 5 to 10 minutes in 60 seconds.

With cardiotokography on the verge of deviation and norm, additional methods of diagnosis should be carried out. These include the identification of biophysical profile and Measurement of blood flow velocity in the area of ​​the royal-placental system.

It is necessary to cancel the reception of medicines that may affect the palpitations of the fetus. After 12 hours, the manipulation is carried out again. Functional samples may be required - the physical activity, the introduction of oxytocin or breathing delay.

This will allow you to check the reaction of the heart rhythm of the child.

Does not harm a CTG fetus

Analysis of the heart rhythm does not pose a danger to crumbs and his mother. Therefore, it can be carried out an unlimited number of times. The only drawback of cardiotockography - Long-term pregnant in one pose . It delivers significant discomfort.

The study helps prevent the development of serious pathologies, therefore, it is undesirable to abandon the planned procedures. Timely diagnosis can save the life of a child and his mother.

Important! When evaluating the results of the CTG, it is necessary to take into account whether a woman takes drugs. The use of Ginipral provokes the tag heartbeat.

Output

KTG is one of the most important procedures for pregnancy. However, the conclusion of pregnancy can only be done. Based on a comprehensive examination . It should not be diagnosed independently. Only a medical worker can decipher KTG.

A source: https://beremenno.ru/diagnostika/ktg-rasshifrovka-RASSHIFROVKA-Rezultatov.html.

What does suspicious ktg according to Figo

Ktg by figo suspicious what it means

With the help of KTG (cardiotokography), the doctor has the opportunity to evaluate the condition of the baby, the work of his heart and get the overall picture of the development of pregnancy. This procedure is appointed by each pregnant woman every week after the onset of 32 pregnancy weeks. The last time this procedure can be carried out even in the maternity hospital.

What is ktg fetal

KTG is one of the diagnostic methods, as a result of which the child's heartbeat is checked, its motor activity and the level of reduction in the uterine muscles. The purpose of the procedure is to identify the hypoxia of the fetus, its anemia, the presence of anomalies in the activities of the heart (there are also congenital deviations).

During the CTG, it is also possible to obtain information about the state of the uterus, namely to define a small breeder or fetoplacentage failure. Modern drugs have the opportunity to examine two children at once, which is very convenient in cases where the woman has twins.

According to plan, the CTG is appointed from 32 weeks of pregnancy, since until that time the fruit has already formed well in terms of cardiac activity. Only starting from this period you can determine the condition of the baby depending on its heartbeat.

If there is a need, then the procedure can be done from 20 weeks, as pathological rhythms are recognized from that time.

Indications for the diagnosis of the fetus are determined by the leading obstetrician-gynecologist

During the procedure, the toddler motor activity is evaluated. If such manifestations are not observed or the child simply sleeps, then the diagnosis will be transferred to another time.

Therefore, future mothers in this case there is no reason to worry - this is a normal phenomenon and the procedure will be done another time.

The procedure does not harm any harm for the child, so the amount of it does not matter - KTG can be made an infinite number of times.

KTG make in such cases:

  • On the ultrasound, changes in the placenta were revealed;
  • There are suspicions that the development of the fetus is delayed;
  • A scar of the uterine tissues was found;
  • The doctor suspects the possibility of birth before the term;
  • Gestosis;
  • Pregnancy was transferred;
  • Doctors observe a decrease in the activity of the fetus;
  • In a pregnant woman, chronic diseases were discovered;
  • The number of accumulating waters has decreased or increased;
  • There are changes in those data that were obtained during the last CTG;
  • At ultrasound, a campus of a baby cord was found.

The procedure is fully safe for both the mother and the child

Before the procedure is not required somehow especially prepare. The only one, the procedure lasts for quite a long time (about an hour). During this time, a woman can get hungry or wanted to the toilet.

Therefore, before holding the CTG, it should be a little snack and go to the toilet. The procedure is carried out in the middleside position or side (it is impossible to completely lie). The sensor is attached to the stomach. From it information in electronic form is transmitted to the block.

The doctor carefully examines all the data and writes about this conclusion.

How to decipher KTG fetal?

Is it harmful to the body of a pregnant woman

CTG is an absolutely safe procedure for both young mom and for her baby. During its holding there are no contraindications and side effects. The procedure is painless, during her woman does not introduce any medicines, no skin piercing occurs or its damage.

The doctor will explain the patient that the procedure is safe for both the mother and the baby

CTG can be carried out at least every day. Usually it is prescribed every week, and sometimes (if no deviations or complications are observed) - periodically. Pregnant women should not be abandoned by the procedure, because if some violations or development deviations were discovered in a timely manner, it can help you save life.

KTG can be held in the nearest female consultation or maternity hospital. It is important to conduct such a survey for all pregnant women, as this will help prevent the occurrence of diseases or pathologies from the baby, and sometimes - and save him life.

A source: https://apkhleb.ru/prochee/chto-oznachaet-podozritelnaya-ktg-figo.

What is KTG: testimony for purpose + decoding

Ktg by figo suspicious what it means

Not long ago, the CTG examination was expensive "exotic". Now this prenatal analysis is included in the mandatory screening of the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy. What is KTG, why do it make and do you need to prepare for this study and how is its results decryp?

KTG apparatus - cardiotokograpograph, does not pose a threat to the health of a pregnant woman and the future child

Information, photos and videos in this article will also help answer questions, most often in the network that are future mothers and sometimes dads, but also grandmothers, who at their time the CTG analysis was simply absent.

What determines KTG

KTG abbreviation is a reduction in medical examination cardiotocography (cardiotokography). This procedure is a continuous registration of the heart rate of the future child - basal heart rate (BDCS), and the tone of the walls of the pregnant uterus.

The heart rate is removed by the Doppler Ultrasound Sensor (in the photo below the letter A) is denoted, and the uterus tone is measured by a strain gauge sensor (B). Therefore, the CTG study is absolutely safe for a woman, and for the fetus.

The main goal of cardiotokography is to assess the state of the placenta and the fetus, and specifically - in clarification, is there any signs of oxygen starvation or not.

Calibration tape and arrangement of cardiotokographic sensors

In the process of registration, the KTG device "draws" 2 parallel graphics (in the photo above):

  • the tachogram (in the photo at the top is marked 1) - changes in the palpitations of the fetus;
  • Hystero- or tokogram (2) - the power of cutting the walls of the uterus.

In addition, today almost all cardiographographs are equipped with an additional sensor (C). This is a small remote with a button that a woman presses independently when the fetal movement feels.

Thus, on the calibration ribbon or on the screen of the monitor, there are marks that fix the moments of the movement of the future child.

For your information. This method of functional evaluation of the state of the fetus is so simple and safely used that today it is used everywhere in childbirth.

There are 2 types of cardiographics:

  1. Indirect cardiotokography . Removed by outer sensors. The strainmetric is placed on the bottom of the uterus, and the Doppler - to the place where the best babe of the heart of the future infant is listening to the best.
  2. Direct cardiotokography . Performed in childbirth with a damaged frenule bubble. This circumstance allows you to measure the indicators from the inside. The basal heart rate is removed using a spiral electrode, and intrauterine pressure is a special catheter.

In some situations, it is possible to pass through cardiotokography with the introduction of oxytocin. Such an examination was called stress cardiography or oxytocin test. It should be known that it is forbidden to fulfill if the pregnant woman moved the water or detached the placenta.

Preparation and progress of the examination procedure

As already mentioned at the beginning of the article, cardiotocography is a mandatory study for screening the beginning of the III of the week of pregnancy. In most cases, cardiotokographic research is prescribed for 32 weeks of pregnancy. But in some clinics there are such devices and computer programs that allow you to do it since 24 weeks.

How to prepare for ktg?

It is not necessary to prepare some special way to cardiotockography. Although there are two recommendations that are easy to perform.

The fact is that during the survey, it is necessary that the fruit is awake, and not sleep. Therefore, shortly before the start of the procedure, the pregnant woman needs to walk for 5-10 minutes or make several exercises, and then eat a small portion of food containing rapid carbohydrates.

Best snack in front of cardiotokography - banana, but an apple or citrus is also suitable

The instruction manual for the cardiotokographic test also does not advise you to make it early in the morning - until 9:00, as well as from 14:00 to 19:00. This is a bad time to examine, since at these time gaps, the fruit is sleeping or in a very sleepy state, and therefore cardiotocograms may be false-negative.

How is CTG?

During all cardiotockography, pregnant lies on the left side or half a chair in the chair

Instructions for deciphering takho and hysterograms prescribes to analyze them only from 15-20 minutes from the start of recording.

Next, it lasts individually - from 10 minutes (minimum) to 1 hour.

Therefore, it will take from 25 to 90 minutes to fix data, and in general, the planned CTG procedure, including the installation and sensors, can take from 45 minutes to 2 hours.

If necessary, the doctor may assign an outpatient performance of a cardiographic examination 1 time in 2-3 days or 1 time per week. If pregnant is hospitalized, then the procedure can repeat even several times a day.

It should also be noted that during the examination, the pregnant women can ask for 2 minutes to massate nipples. Such a test is called Mammarn, and the massage replaces the introduction of synthetic oxytocin.

It is possible to take cardiotocography with exercise - before recording indicators, a woman is offered to climb the stairs to 2 floors. Or the doctor can assign a cardiotokographic test with a respiratory test.

In this case, the future mom will ask for a few times to delay their breath separately on the breath and in exhalation. By the way, in the first case, the palpitations of the fetus should decrease a little, and in the second it will increase somewhat.

CTG readings: decryption

After and directly during the study, decryption of indicators after occurs.

The doctor assesses the CTG criteria as:

  1. The average frequency of the basal cardiac rhythm (fetal heartbeat). Its normal indicators are in the signature under the photo below. Values ​​above are regarded as tachycardia, and lower as bradycardia. The data is considered reliable if they are fixed for 10 minutes in a row.
  2. The rhythm variability of the fetal heart work: type, amplitude, oscillation frequency, activation \ deceration.
  3. Changes and the level of manifestation of myocardial reflex (increasing the palpitations of the fetus during an increase in its motor activity).

Modern computer modifications for cardiotocking devices can also be recorded in memory and display on the monitor screen, such indicators for the future mother as: pulse, fluctuations in the volume of the uterus (plethymogram), respiratory rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation (pulse oximetry), body temperature .

Normal indicators of the BDCS - from 120 to 160 beats per minute (average140-145)

Assessment of the above cards of cardiotokography gives you the opportunity to help the doctor suspect or confirm the identified disorders of the heart of the future child, choose the necessary medical events and tactics of the recent weeks of pregnancy, choose the method and decide on the term of artificial delivery, and in childbirth - quickly and adequately react to the hypoxia fetal.

Attention. Deciphering the results of evaluation criteria for cardiotockography is not a diagnosis! For its production, a complex of surveys and analyzes is needed.

CTG indicators obtained during a single examination give a doctor only an indirect idea of ​​the current state of the kid in which it remains at the time of the study and may be located within a further 24 hours, maximum.

The future mother should be understood that under the influence of different circumstances, the poor or good condition of the fetus can be changed for the opposite even in a few hours. In addition, as practice shows, the accuracy of the evaluation of the functional state of the fetus varies in the range of 69-75%.

Therefore, the publication of their cardiographics in the network with plenty of their decoding is absurd. Moreover, violations of the cardiovascular system at the future kid do not always coincide with the severity of hypoxia, and vice versa.

For example, during research, the head simply pressed the umbilical cord, and the decoding of the results will show oxygen starvation, which is not in fact.

Nevertheless, how to decipher the results of the CTG? In order to do this, you need to know what kind of scores is the doctor. After all, there are a lot of them, and several are used in obstetric practice.

For example, we have abroad in the course of the methodology proposed and approved by the international federation of obstetricians and gynecologists (FIGO) in 1987.

Calculator CTG Points by Figo Method

Evaluation of the CTG in points according to the method of FIGO:

The result is from 6 to 8 points by Figo - suspicious decoding. The survey needs to repeat + to make other tests and research.

You can decipher the CTG in the above version that can be found on the Figo perinatal committee website.

CTG Decoding: Normal, Prepactology State, Pathological Changes

But directly in childbirth, if the CTG indicators are removed using domestic technology and software - an automated cardiomonitor "Unicos", the assessment of the state of the fetus is performed according to the following 4-point scale, where:

  • 0-1 score - norm;
  • 1.1-2 points - primary disorders;
  • 2.1-3 - pronounced violations;
  • 3.1-4 points - sharply pronounced disorders, critical condition

The accuracy of this monitoring, the state of the baby appearing in childbirth, reaches 89%.

By the way, the other domestic CTG apparatus - "intranatal automated monitor" can be used in the maternity hospital. If the cardiotocogram is removed by them, then the PSP (fetal status indicator) is performed on a 10-point scale similar to that used in the APGAR method.

Deciphering the amount of PSP scores obtained on the apgar scale:

  • 7-10 points - an excellent result, the newborn does not require doctors intervention, it does not need additional care or content in the host-incubator;
  • 6-4 points - some resuscitation manipulations and procedures are possible.

The newborns who scored less than 4 points need immediate ambulance and special care.

Questions - Answers

Returned with cardiotokography. In the form of the survey result, 11 points are written. What does it mean?

Such an assessment indicates that the analysis was conducted on the Krebs scale, and the state of the fetus is almost perfect, since the data rate in this technique is from 8 to 12.

What indicates the record in the cardiotokography blank - "STV with CTG - norm"?

STV means Short-Term Variation. This indicator is calculated automatically upon examination on some modern devices, in which the data is processed according to the Dowes Redman method or the KTG-Oxford program.

STV is the difference in medium pulse intervals of the BDCS for 1/16 minutes. This indicator reflects the degree of oxygen deficiency.

It gives a very accurate forecast for the probability of the intrauterine death of the fetus or the development of the metabolic acidosis after birth. The standard STV is 5 ms and more. Most fixed 6-9 ms. At the values ​​below 2.6 ms there is a real threat to the lives of the fetus.

CTG variability - what is it?

Variability is the parameter of the BDCS, which characterizes the amplitude of changes in the absolute meaning of the heart of the fetus. It is considered normal with a value equal to 5 or more, but is questioned and is considered unreliable if there were more than 5 for 40-90 minutes.

Bad result is when high variability in CTG (more than 5) is fixed for more than 90 minutes.

What does it mean - "activation with CTG - the norm" and "deceleration on KTG - rare"?

Akeletonia is a term denoting a temporary increase in the BDCS on ≥15 ice / min, which continues ≥15 seconds, and deceptions denote a slowdown with the same quantitative and time parameters.

The fact that the doctor noted in the form of deciphering cardiographography The presence of rare decelerations is actually nothing bad means. Such deceleration of the BECS as: benign, rare, single-type or early - do not have clinical significance. We give examples of decryption of these indicators.

Interpretation of the parameters of cardiotockography: deceleration, activation

A good result of cardiotokography interpreted through Fisher is considered if the BDCS, variability, activation and deceptors correspond to the norm.

If at least 1 parameter is doubtful, then all the research is considered unreliable, and at 2 dubious or 1 pathological parameter, the general conclusion relates a cardiotockographic examination to the pathological type.

What is the "CTG channel US1" parameters and FM indicator "?

For the abbreviation of US with numbers "hid" the indicators of the uterus activity, and Fm denotes the motor activity of the fetus.

What does Toko mean on ktg?

Toko or tokogram is a second graph that displays the power of the uterus cuts. He has another name - hysterogram.

And in conclusion, those pregnant women who are too worried about the first passage of cardiotockography can look in the video in this article that the survey procedure is actually light and absolutely painless.

A source: https://cardio-help.ru/diagnostika/chto-takoe-ktg-607

Ktg by figo suspicious

Ktg by figo suspicious what it means

A mandatory examination during pregnancy is the KGT is a type of diagnosis (CTG) only in a specialized clinic and under the guidance of specialists, since it is necessary to have equipment intended for this purpose.

Cardiotocography or in other words KTG do not just do so, but you need to properly prepare to get the right indicators, for example, Short Term. When visiting the CTG, you need to spread the sheet on a specially designed couch and lie on the side. Basically, this is the right side or a semi-sidewal state.

What it is: ktg during pregnancy

It is worth noting that how long the study lasts, directly depends on the state of pregnant women, on what time a survey is carried out and for what period, for example, stressful or non-press. During diagnostics, you can drink and even talk, as it will not affect the state of the fetus and even more so on the data obtained.

  1. The procedure should not be done on an empty stomach, for example, if the procedure last time was carried out when the child sleeps, then you can eat a piece of chocolate, which will make it a little more active.
  2. To pre-go to the toilet, since the process of obtaining results thus lasts about 40 minutes.
  3. Disable telephone and other devices that can provoke interference formation.
  4. Move before the study to wake a child.

In any case, the position is selected at which nothing will squeeze the uterine cavity. Then the specialist connects the device at the expense of belts and sensors, which are located on the abdomen.

Proper decoding of the results of the CTG

Deciphering indicators is carried out according to strictly established rules, and only an experienced specialist can decipher data. At first (Dawza Criteria Redman in Figo) examines how often the heart is reduced.

The rate must be lumfied per minute.

In addition, bradycardia is investigated, the norm, which is considered to be less than 100 and how many blows in mines are carried out when checking the pulse, which in an increased state can reach about 180.

In order to spend the CTG, there are several prerequisites.

  • Planned diagnostics;
  • Suspicious activity or fetal lull;
  • Bad condition of the mother;
  • Period before childbirth.

To properly decipher the results of the CGT, you should contact your doctor

Next, the variability of cardiac rhythm is investigated. In other words, a study of the amplitude of oscillations or deviation from the main line of basal frequency is carried out. There must be indicators in the limits in the miner and the frequency of not more than 6. In other words, there are about 6 jumps in the form of deviation from the basal frequency per minute.

There is a difference in the type of rhythm, which happens: a monotonous, threatening, slightly abandoning and sifting.

The norm is considered to be the presence of an indulgent or sealing rhythm, or the indication of the variability in the form of 9-25 times in min.

If a monotonous or slightly increasing appearance is placed, and the variability is less than 9 times or more than 25 times in min, it becomes a clear sign of fetal hypoxia. In the course of this study, the assessment of myocardial reflex.

In other words, the CSS of the child may increase with its own fetal mechanifications, during which an activation is registered. It is also a variety of not stressful test.

In turn, the stress test is the tracking of the CSS of the Fetal when exposed to the nipple area of ​​a pregnant woman, which provokes a hormone emission to a contributing increase in the tone of the uterus.

Outdoor and indirect CTG fetal: what it is

CTG is carried out on weeks and, if it is completed successfully, it means that neither the fetus nor the future mother has no pathologies. If the diagnosis of such data, as a pulse and similar information, shows normal indicators, then you can not worry and do not resort to treatment, if necessary.

  • Indirect;
  • Outdoor, is carried out most often;
  • Direct or internal.

Direct study is required only during childbirth, when a fetal bubble is already opened. To measure the fetal heartbeat, use a needle electrode, which is entered into the prerequisite part of the fetus.

Thus, a recruitment of the uterus is recorded or, in other words, tracking battles.

Now direct CTG is used especially rarely, since there are simpler and more efficient ways to diagnose the state of the fetus and the mother simultaneously.

What is the norm of ktg during pregnancy

To make a CTG, certain conditions should be observed, which was written above, as well as a special apparatus.

The concept of the KTG abbreviation is decrypted as cardiotocography, for which a special recording device is used, as well as sensors that are installed on the abdomen cavity using elastic belts, an ultrasonic sensor, by means of which the frequency of reducing the heart of the fetus is written.

The last sensor is put on the region of the abdomen, where the heart rate is best listening to and the place can vary depending on the period of pregnancy, the position of the baby in the uterine cavity, for example:

You can get acquainted with the standards of the CGT during pregnancy, as independently, so consulting with the doctor

There is a special table at which the indicators obtained are compared with the norm or vice versa, deviation from the norm, and the fact that the sensor produces is called a tachogram. The abscissa axis displays the time in seconds or in other words, that period during which the woman passed the survey. The ordinate axis displays the heart rate of the kid.

To track the contractile activity or the presence / absence of the stakes of the uterus, a strain gauge sensor is used, which must be installed on the right angle of the uterus, since it is from this place that a grapple-shaped wave occurs in front of childbirth.

The deceleration schedule whose acceleration is issued by this sensor, has a name - a hysterogram. The line shows that there is no contraction or not, and there is also no tone.

Modern devices for recording CTG are equipped with a variety of additional functions that allow for the minimum amount of time to track all necessary data and, in particular, the fetal movements are distinguished from the mothers of the mother so that they do not lubricate diagnostic information.

How and what should show during pregnancy ktg

The reason for the deterioration of the state of the fetus can be wounded in a variety of factors. For example, an increase in the reactivity of a child depends on how much mother behaves actively. Each future mother knows that many factors can affect the condition of a child in the womb.

For example, it really affects:

  • Weather:
  • Emotional mood of the mother;
  • Ambient atmosphere and environment;
  • Nutrition and not only.

If an increased tone is observed in late dates, a decrease or an increase in fetal activity and other pathologies is observed, then a CTG is required, a diagnostic method, during which continuous registration of the frequency of cardiac abbreviations is carried out. CTG is an informative and completely safe method of diagnosis, with which for the minimum amount of time, you can get information about the crumb that is in the womb.

Parameter KTG 8 points: what it means

CTGs start with the location of a woman in a horizontal position, and during the holding of the issued parameters are recorded. Everything is carried out automatically by the device itself.

It is worth noting that each obtained index affects which ball will be delivered after the end of the diagnosis. 8-10 - Normal condition. 6-7 There are doubts about the normality of the state.

Less than 6 points is the moment when its condition is dangerous for the kid, and the doctor's help is required.

Regardless of the points that were obtained at the previous CTG study, the subsequent is carried out, given the same criteria.

That is, all actions are similar, however, there are various points when it is necessary to conduct a CTG, and it can be planned or emergency, which depends on certain parameters. It is worth noting that in addition to the CTG, a woman during pregnancy should be studied.

8 balls in the CGT means that the state of the fetus is in normal condition

As a rule, the scheduled conduct of KTG begins with 32 weeks of pregnancy, and in the period 3 trimester should be carried out every week with a prosperous flow of the fetus development period. KTG in childbirth is carried out at the receipt of a woman in the maternity hospital, complete disclosure of the uterus, the absence of disclosure and presence of too strong bages, each sweegue.

Approved norms: Fetal heartbeat for weeks

KTG (incorrectly KGT) Control is a number of indications under which this study should be carried out more often.

With multiple pregnancy, it is important to track down the condition of each kid, since the distribution of the beneficial substances is 2 times stronger, and there is a possibility of developing pathologies from one of twins, especially if it is a monochrome twin. At least to eliminate the risk of hypoxia.

With multi-way to exclude pathologies, because the metabolism is disturbed. With transferred pregnancy, if the term has already reached 41 weeks and 4 days. When reducing the activity of the fetus.

Each inspection must be carefully talking to the doctor:

  • All sensations;
  • How often the fruit is moving;
  • How often he subsides;
  • Which contributes to 2 previous factors;
  • What can bring the baby into a stressful state, for example, to the fact that it will start floundering inside the womb.

It is according to this information that the doctor may draw conclusions, the first to be the first to be in what state is the child and the second, which can exactly be threatened. If there are suspicions that hypoxia or premature genera threatens the fetus, it is necessary to additionally carry out ultrasound and dopplerometry.

If the baby monitors the presence of a placental violation, this indicates placental insufficiency with the escorting of hemodynamic violations or, in other words, on the violation of blood flow in the uterine cavity and the umbilical artery.

It may even be provided that the woman is completely healthy and has no pathologies, but most often it arises from those who smoke, consume alcoholic beverages, has heart and lung diseases, refers to the age group for over 35 years. Also, the implementation of the CTG should be carried out in emergency mode when preeclampsia and a burdened an obstetric history.

What is KTG during pregnancy (video)

All studies listed above should conduct only a qualified specialist with the formation of an obstetrician-gynecologist.

ATTENTION, only today!

A source: http://plenki-kley.ru/ktg-po-figo-podozritelnaja/

CTG fetal - norm. CTG fetal is a norm of 36 weeks. how to decipher KTG fetal

Ktg by figo suspicious what it means

Absolutely every woman during pregnancy is experiencing about how her child develops, whether he is in order. Today there are methods that allow us to significantly reliably assess the state of the fetus.

One of these methods is cardiotocography (CTG), detecting the relationship between the fetal movements and the frequency of heart rate.

From this article, you will learn what CTG is, for what characteristics it is assessed, what indicators for the FLIG ratio - the norm, and what affects the results of the study.

What is KTG

Cardiotocography is based on registration frequency of the fetal heartbeat and its changes depending on the influence of external stimuli or fetal activity.

The diagnosis is carried out with two ultrasound sensors, one of which is strengthened on the stomach of a pregnant woman, after determining the area of ​​good hearing the heartbeat of the child. It is designed to register the heart activities of the fetus.

The sensor perceives the ultrasonic signal reflected from the heart of the child, which is further converted by an electronic system into an instantaneous heart rate. The second sensor is fixed on the stomach in the bottom of the uterus. It registers cuts from the uterus. To improve the passage of ultrasonic waves, the sensors are processed by a special gel.

Also, modern devices are equipped with a remote control, pressing the button of which, a pregnant woman can mark the movement of the fetus.

The results are displayed by the instrument on a paper tape in the form of a graph. There are also displays the cuts of the uterus and moving the fetus. According to the data obtained, it can be judged, above all, about the state of the nervous system of the kid, about its protective and adaptive reactions. If the CTG fetal indicators are the norm, it means that the baby feels comfortable, and its development goes according to the deadlines.

What is needed by ktg

Inspection of a pregnant woman in the office of the obstetrician-gynecologist includes and listening to the heartbeat of the child with a stethoscope.

Deviation from the rate of heart rate (heart rate) in a large or smaller side suggests that the child is discomfort.

In this case, the doctor sends a future mother to a more careful study of the work of the cardiovascular system of the fetus - KTG.

There is a clear dependence between the well-being of pregnant and the state of the fetus. So, if the pregnancy proceeds calmly, without intrauterine infection, the threat of interrupt, gestosis, the results of the CTG, most likely will be normal. If, with good health, suspicious results of the CTG are pregnant, it is necessary to re-conduct a survey in a week.

If a pregnant woman has serious changes in health, then it is necessary to carry out CTG as often as possible in order to prevent pathologies in the development of the fetus on time and take the necessary measures.

Features of the study

Assign CTGs usually after 32 weeks of pregnancy, since only the maturation of neuromuscular pulses occurs, and the method becomes the most informative.

For example, for the CTG fetus, the norm of 33 weeks is the presence on the chart of more than two activations. By this deadline, they are caused by the response of the nervous system on the movement of the fetus or on external factors. In earlier deadlines, activation can be associated with the conditions of the intrauterine existence of the fetus, so the study may result in false results.

Also, the fetus also establishes the activity and rest cycle, which is of great importance for this study.

When conducting KTG during the rest of the fetus, the results will always be positive, even if there is actually a high degree of hypoxia. That is why the study should be carried out at least 40 minutes.

During this time, the fetus will necessarily increase the motor activity, which will allow you to register the change in the heart rate during its movement.

It is very important that the woman felt calm and comfortably during the study. An uncomfortable position or bright emotions can cause a more active movement of the fetus, which will lead to false results. Usually during the procedure, the woman sits in a comfortable chair or lies on the couch on the side.

In order to understand how to decipher the CTG of the Fetal, we will analyze in detail, for which parameters it is estimated.

Basal Heart Frequency

The basal heart rate is the average frequency of the fetal heart rate calculated in 10-20 minutes. Determine it in the absence of the movement of the fetus between the cuts of the uterus without external stimuli, excluding activation and decerations. When conducting a CTG fetal, the BCHS standard is 110-160 shots per minute.

Tachycardia, that is, the excess of the baseband rate of heartbeat, can be observed in hypoxia of the fetus, anemia, defects and deficiency of the function of the health of the fetus, as well as with a feverish state of pregnant, pregnant, the presence of an intrauterine infection, increasing the function of the thyroid gland.

Acceptance of drugs that have a pacemulatory effect can lead to an increase in the palpitation of the fetus.

The lowering of the basal level below the norm (bradycardia) may be due to hypoxia, the fetal heart defects, as well as the reduced arterial pressure of the mother, hypoxhemia, long-term squeezing of umbilical cord, the presence of a cytomegalovirus infection in a pregnant woman.

Cardiac variability

This parameter is characterized by the presence of instant oscillations - the deviations of the heart rate from the basal level. When analyzing the CTG, the amplitude of instantaneous oscillations is used, by the nature of which low oscillations are isolated (the deviation is less than three UD / min), the average (3-6 UD / min), high (amplitude more than 6 ice / min).

For KTG fetal, the norm is 36 weeks - high oscillations indicating good health of the fetus. The presence of low oscillations speaks of pathologies in its development.

Special attention in the analysis of cardiotocograms is given to slow oscillations. Depending on their amplitude, the monotonous type is distinguished, for which the low amplitude of oscillations is characterized (from 0 to 5 Ud / min), transitional type with an amplitude from 6 to 10 ° C. / min, wave (from 11 to 25 Ud / min) and the jumping type (amplitude above 25 UD / min).

Increasing the amplitude of oscillations can be associated with moderate hypoxia of the fetus, as well as with the influence of external stimuli, stimulating its nervous system.

Reducing the amplitude of oscillations can be caused by severe hypoxia, which leads to the oppression of the function of the nervous system of the fetus, the use of narcotic drugs, tranquilizers.

Akelerations

Ankoleration is the temporary increase in the heartbeat at least 15 ice / min compared to the basal level and a duration of more than 15 seconds. On the cardiotokogram they look like high teeth. Akelections are a response to external stimuli, cutting up the uterus, on the movement of the child. Their presence on the CTG fetus is the norm.

Decomleration

The deception is called the impact of the fetal heart rate at least 15 ° C / min duration of more than 15 seconds. The graph shows as essential depressions. There are early, late and variable dealercy.

In addition, they are classified by amplitude as light with heartbeat demolition of up to 30 UD / min, moderate - 30 - 45 UD / min, and heavy - from 45 ° C. / min.

The disengagement of the heart rate may arise due to impairment of placental blood flow, myocardium hypoxia, squeezing umbilical cord.

CTG fetal. Norm of indicators

To assess the state of the fetus, the World Health Organization has developed recommendations in which the minimum and maximum values ​​for each of the parameters are indicated. According to these recommendations, the Fetal CTG (norm for 33 weeks) must have the following values:

  • Basal heartbeat level: 110-160 Ud / min.
  • Cardiac variability in the range of 5-25 ° C. / min.
  • Two and more accelerations for 10 minutes.
  • Lack of deep decerations.

It is worth noting that for the CTG fetus, the rate of 35 weeks and more the same as at 33 weeks.

Estimation of the state of the fetus on the points

Decipherate the results of the CTG on a 10-point system, estimating each criterion from 0 to 2 points.

For the CTG fetus, the norm of 36 weeks, as the entire third trimester, is 9-10 points, if the total number of points from 6 to 8, this indicates oxygen starvation (hypoxia) without emergency threats, it is necessary to repeat the CTG procedure in a week; If 5 points and less - it means, the child is experiencing the strongest oxygen starvation, which can lead to serious neurological problems, it is necessary to emergency take action.

It must be remembered that even if the KTG fetal has 8 points or just below, it is not necessary to scare ahead of time. In this type of research, as well as in many others, there are factors affecting informative readings.

The results are strongly dependent, for example, from whether the child sleeps or wakes. Experienced doctors when deciphering cardiotocograms, such factors as weather conditions, the mood of a pregnant woman, the blood glucose level of a woman are taken into account.

If the CTG data does not correspond to the norm, the doctor will appoint an additional examination.

Typically, cardiotokography is carried out twice in the third trimester of pregnancy, but in some cases, more, for example, with multiple pregnancy, increased arterial pressure, presence of infections, with diabetes, unsatisfactory results of ultrasound, bleeding, premature fights.

Possible errors in the interpretation of Data KTG

  1. The child in the womb is in constant motion. Sometimes he can press the head of the umbilical cord, which is why the blood flow in the vessels of the umbilical cord is violated, which is reflected on the results of the CTG. In this case, the cardiotocogram will have a pathological character with good condition of the fetus.
  2. Sometimes during oxygen starvation in the fetus, protective reactions include: oxygen consumption of tissues and increased hypoxia resistance occurs. In such cases, the child suffers, but it is not reflected in the CTG.
  3. In the development of pathology, the ability of tissues to perceive oxygen can decrease with its normal blood content, which is why the fetus does not occur no reaction, and the CTG will be normal, although it suffers due to lack of oxygen.

Given all the foregoing, it is necessary to understand that the CTG of the Fetal during pregnancy is a very important diagnostic method, but to obtain a complete picture of what is happening, the CTG data must be compared with other studies. To date, ultrasound diagnostics and dopplerometry are widely used.

Where can I make ktg fetal

KTG make for free in all women's consultations. It is possible to conduct a study in private medical centers, but already on a paid basis. In the maternity hospital, they also carry out cardiotokography in the process of childbirth. It helps to evaluate the state of health in childbirth and cutting the uterus, check the effectiveness of the treatment and tactics of childbirth.

Some future mothers are afraid to hold a different kind of research during pregnancy, considering that they can cause damage to the health of the future baby. Cardiography is absolutely safe, and you can make it as many times as necessary, without risk to health. In addition, it is painless, does not cause any unpleasant sensations.

We wish you easy pregnancy and excellent well-being!

A source: https://fb.ru/article/137970/ktg-ploda---norma-ktg-ploda---norma-v-nedel-kak-rasshifrovat-ktg-ploda.

CTG fetal: decoding results, norm

Ktg by figo suspicious what it means

To observe the future baby, various procedures are used, in particular cardiotokography, or KTG. The CTG of the Fetal, the decoding of which will tell the heart rate and uterine contractions of the future kid, is part of the complex of procedures for monitoring the future mom during pregnancy.

Pregnancy is the happiest and responsible period in the life of every woman. For 9 months not only the development of the future child occurs, but the habits and the body of the future mother change significantly.

It is very important to observe your future baby together with the doctor from the first week of pregnancy to eliminate the risk of developing the pathologies of the fetus.

  • 1 Cardiotokography
  • 2 How do KTG make?
  • 3 results

Cardiotokography

Conducting such a procedure, the doctor registers the pulse and the uterine contraction of the baby in the mother's womb and reveals compliance with the standards.

A doctor who is pregnant will prescribe KTG pregnant mom when it is on a period of 30 weeks.

It happens that the procedure can be carried out earlier, but this is subject to special testimony to research. The first KTG pass, as a rule, on the period of 32 weeks.

Futive mothers are encouraged to undergo a procedure several times during pregnancy to constantly monitor the state of the fetus. Normally - 2 procedures for the third trimester of pregnancy (from 32 weeks and more). When pregnancy proceeds with some complications, additional research will be necessary.

In addition, the procedure is carried out even during childbirth. The doctor is constantly watching the kid to eliminate the dangerous consequences in the process of appearance.

The general condition of the child is always in sight of the doctor, so you should not worry about your baby.

If the results of the ultrasound showed that the baby wore umbilical cord, they would especially closely monitor, since additional control in such a situation is simply necessary.

How do KTG do?

Such a procedure is completely safe for both mom and fruit. No harm to wait for her. It is also not necessary to scare the process itself: pain or unpleasant sensations are also not. Not terrible. The only requirement from mommy at the time of the study is to take a pose lying on the back or midstage and relax. Everything else will do a doctor.

A doctor will attach several sensors to the tummy to feel the baby, it is:

  • Ultrasound sensor, which determines the heart patellium;
  • Pressure sensor or strain sensor: It registers uterine contractions.

The study lasts from 30 to 60 minutes. The time depends on what moment the baby in the womb is most active. The results of the procedure are fixed on paper tape and resemble the results of an adult cardography.

To any research must be prepared. The future mom is needed to sleep, relax, tune in to a positive note, have a snack. Before starting the procedure, it is recommended to eat chocolate chocolate so that the baby is more active. During the procedure, you need to visit the toilet, because the study continues long enough.

results

The main result that the doctor who conducted cardiotokography will be informed will be points. For each indicator, the number of points varies from 0 to 2.

As for the results of the study, suspicious graphics are not always indicative of the poor state of the fetus. It should be understood that the state of mommy and baby depends not only on their health during the period of procedure, but also on the spectrum of other factors: stress, inclimp, nutrition.

Therefore, with deviations from the norm, you do not need to panic. Sometimes completely healthy kids suspicious results of the CTG. Trust the health of the baby to the doctor.

A future mother is useful to be able to at least partially understand what the CTG tape shows, so it can significantly reduce stress and fears.

Deciphering the CTG fetus is not a very difficult lesson, but the subtleties of the study are available only to the doctor.

The doctor assesses the following parameters: basal rhythm, amplitude, freight and heartbeat demolition.

  1. The rhythm of heart abbreviations in the norm should be 110-160 shots per minute. The schedule reflects the minimum and maximum, but the doctor looks at the average and evaluates it. The term of 35 weeks suggests 120-160 heart blows per minute.
  2. Tulch and teeth - variable cuts of the baby's heart. These are deviations from basal rhythm and their frequency. On the chart you can see that the curve has many small teeth. They show deviations from the basal rhythm. Norm - no more than 6 deviations per minute. Such a norm acts from 32 weeks of pregnancy. The doctor does not consider their number - the average height of the teeth is measured. 11-25 blows a minute is the norm. If the value varies from 0-10 shots, then it will be suspicious for the doctor. But this indicator does not always mean problems in the state of the baby. It is possible that the kid just sleeps sweetly at mom in the tummy. For a period of less than 28 weeks, this indicator is also normal. If the doctor has exceeding 25 blows per minute, then there may be a danger of a cordial cord baby or hypoxia of the fetus. Diagnose exactly the doctor must up to 37 weeks.
  3. Exciration and demaths are assessed by large teeth on the schedule. Pregnant women from 32 to 38 weeks must click on a special button when the baby moves. Such a procedure is characteristic of old equipment, new machines are capable of fixing the data without the participation of mommy. When a child moves, his heart beats a little faster - on the graph of the tooth goes up (increase). A good sign will be at least 2 teeth in 10 minutes of research. It happens that during the study, not a single participation was recorded. There is no reason for anxiety - most likely, the baby has not yet woke up. Reference - the opposite phenomenon of increased participation. They can influence uterine cuts. For conclusions about the state of the baby, they estimate the amplitude of the teeth that grow down.

The final results of the study - the addition of points for each indicator:

  1. The rate of KTG during pregnancy - 8-9 points. At 35 weeks of points should be less than 8.
  2. 6-7 points are a reason for appointing an additional survey to eliminate the unstable state of the baby.
  3. 5 and below - pregnant urgently need help and hospitalization.

At different terms, the norms are different, deviations should not be 38 weeks.

Cardiotocography is a very effective additional study without hazardous consequences for the future mother and fetus.

The method is very informative and helps to quickly identify violations and prevent dangerous consequences.

On the period of 35 weeks the information will be more accurate than during the first CTG. Mom in 37 weeks will get the most complete information about his baby. Regardless of the results - you do not need to panic.

Cardiotokography - An additional study and interpret it will be completely able to completely be a doctor. A suspicious result does not always talk about pathologies, so you need to entrust the doctor's health of your future kid.

A source: http://lediznaet.ru/deti/beremennost/ktg-ploda-rasshifrovka-rezultatov-norma.html.

What does suspicious ktg according to Figo

Ktg by figo suspicious what it means

With the help of KTG (cardiotokography), the doctor has the opportunity to evaluate the condition of the baby, the work of his heart and get the overall picture of the development of pregnancy. This procedure is appointed by each pregnant woman every week after the onset of 32 pregnancy weeks. The last time this procedure can be carried out even in the maternity hospital.

What is ktg fetal

KTG is one of the diagnostic methods, as a result of which the child's heartbeat is checked, its motor activity and the level of reduction in the uterine muscles. The purpose of the procedure is to identify the hypoxia of the fetus, its anemia, the presence of anomalies in the activities of the heart (there are also congenital deviations).

During the CTG, it is also possible to obtain information about the state of the uterus, namely to define a small breeder or fetoplacentage failure. Modern drugs have the opportunity to examine two children at once, which is very convenient in cases where the woman has twins.

According to plan, the CTG is appointed from 32 weeks of pregnancy, since until that time the fruit has already formed well in terms of cardiac activity. Only starting from this period you can determine the condition of the baby depending on its heartbeat.

If there is a need, then the procedure can be done from 20 weeks, as pathological rhythms are recognized from that time.

Indications for the diagnosis of the fetus are determined by the leading obstetrician-gynecologist

During the procedure, the toddler motor activity is evaluated. If such manifestations are not observed or the child simply sleeps, then the diagnosis will be transferred to another time.

Therefore, future mothers in this case there is no reason to worry - this is a normal phenomenon and the procedure will be done another time.

The procedure does not harm any harm for the child, so the amount of it does not matter - KTG can be made an infinite number of times.

KTG make in such cases:

  • On the ultrasound, changes in the placenta were revealed;
  • There are suspicions that the development of the fetus is delayed;
  • A scar of the uterine tissues was found;
  • The doctor suspects the possibility of birth before the term;
  • Gestosis;
  • Pregnancy was transferred;
  • Doctors observe a decrease in the activity of the fetus;
  • In a pregnant woman, chronic diseases were discovered;
  • The number of accumulating waters has decreased or increased;
  • There are changes in those data that were obtained during the last CTG;
  • At ultrasound, a campus of a baby cord was found.

The procedure is fully safe for both the mother and the child

Before the procedure is not required somehow especially prepare. The only one, the procedure lasts for quite a long time (about an hour). During this time, a woman can get hungry or wanted to the toilet.

Therefore, before holding the CTG, it should be a little snack and go to the toilet. The procedure is carried out in the middleside position or side (it is impossible to completely lie). The sensor is attached to the stomach. From it information in electronic form is transmitted to the block.

The doctor carefully examines all the data and writes about this conclusion.

How to decipher KTG fetal?

Suspicious cardiotokography

Visually cardiotocograms are interpreted by different methods. To obtain a standard assessment, the rules and rules that were established by the FIGA Committee in 1985 should be adhered. In this case, the indicators are divided into several types:

  • normal;
  • suspicious;
  • Pathological.

For suspicious KTG characteristic such indicators:

  • the presence of a basal rhythm of 110-100 beats per minute and 150-170 shots;
  • Basal rhythm should have an amplitude of 5-10 shots per minute;
  • in 40 minutes of research was not detected by activation;
  • Sporadic decelerations are observed (not heavy).

If a woman does not understand what the KTG means a suspicious KTG, then she should not panic immediately, but it is better to turn to the doctor for explanations. This type of cardiographography gives a doctor's reason to prescribe an additional stress test, which will more accurately appreciate the condition of the child.

Is it harmful to the body of a pregnant woman

CTG is an absolutely safe procedure for both young mom and for her baby. During its holding there are no contraindications and side effects. The procedure is painless, during her woman does not introduce any medicines, no skin piercing occurs or its damage.

The doctor will explain the patient that the procedure is safe for both the mother and the baby

CTG can be carried out at least every day. Usually it is prescribed every week, and sometimes (if no deviations or complications are observed) - periodically. Pregnant women should not be abandoned by the procedure, because if some violations or development deviations were discovered in a timely manner, it can help you save life.

KTG can be held in the nearest female consultation or maternity hospital. It is important to conduct such a survey for all pregnant women, as this will help prevent the occurrence of diseases or pathologies from the baby, and sometimes - and save him life.

A source: https://apkhleb.ru/prochee/chto-oznachaet-podozritelnaya-ktg-figo.

Ktg - decoding results: what should be the rate of hormones during pregnancy

Ktg by figo suspicious what it means

Cardiography is a diagnostic procedure necessary for Future heart rate estimates and the degree of reduction of the uterine muscles. It allows you to identify the pathology of the heart and take the necessary measures as early as possible. Conducting the procedure starts from the 32nd lapse of the fetus.

For what is carried out

The heart of the child begins to form on the fifth week of pregnancy. The supply of heart muscles nerves ends only by the 27th week.

Starting from the 28th week, the heart and nervous system are a single mechanism. This means that the active movements of the kid reflected on the heartbeat.

KTG allows you to determine not only the condition of the child, but also diagnose congenital anomalies, such as the:

  • anemia;
  • Malovodie;
  • hypoxia;
  • Fetoplacentar insufficiency;
  • Heart diseases.

Cardiographograph is a device with several sensors.

The strain gauge sensor fixes the uterine abbreviations.

Cardiomonitors show the nature of the motor activity of the child. Ultrasonic sensor determines Movement of heart valves .

Usually, the study of the child's heartbeat is carried out in scheduled mode.

Additionally, diagnostic manipulations are prescribed in the following cases:

  • the presence of a woman of chronic diseases;
  • Prerequisites for the change in the volume of spindle water;
  • placental pathologies found in ultrasound;
  • High The likelihood of premature births ;
  • Gestosis;
  • Negative rhesus factor in a woman;
  • Most umbilical fetal;
  • The presence of a scar on the uterus.

Diagnostics indicators are calculated automatically. When summarizing the results is amended. During this period, the heart palpitation is calm. If the baby does not want to wake up, the woman needs to move or eat a couple of chocolate lobs.

With normal pregnancy flow cardiotokography spend every 7-10 days starting from the 32nd week. But sometimes they do and after the 28th week. With complicated course of pregnancy, the frequency of visits to the medical office is 5-7 days.

In case of suspicion of oxygen starvation, research is carried out every day or every other day. After stabilizing the state of the fetus, visits to female consultation are carried out every week.

If the child during the diagnostic session does not show activity, it can be transferred to another day.

Principle of procedure

KTG is carried out according to certain rules. Violation of technology is fraught with obtaining false results. Pregnant is placed on the couch in the position lying on the side.

It is necessary in order to Avoid pressure on the lower hollow vein . The ultrasonic sensor is installed in accordance with the position of the fetus.

A special gel is applied to it. The strain gauge sensor is placed in the bottom of the uterus. It is not necessary to lubricate it gel.

In the hands of the future mother there is a remote control to be pressed during the movements of the fetus. In total, the procedure is carried out 40 minutes.

Special preparation does not require research. It is desirable to empty the intestines and the bladder. Before the procedure, it is necessary to have a snack. This will avoid uncomfortable sensations. Sometimes doctors advise to eat before visiting the medical office of sweet food. it Increases the activity of the child in the womb .

Decoding results

How to decrypt the result of the CTG, tells the attending physician. When evaluating the health of the child, the following indicators are taken into account:

  • The variability is the difference between short-term heap rhythm and basal frequency.
  • Ackeeration is a dechecond healing of heartbeat for more than 15 blows every 60 seconds.
  • The basal rhythm is the average indicator indicating the level of the fetal heart rate at rest.
  • Indicator deceration Indicates a deceleration of the heartbeat by more than 15 blows in a dechenecond gap. Deteruration is divided into DIP3, DIP2 and DIP1. The most critical is the DIP3 indicator. It testifies to the lack of oxygen.

Tip! The ideal result of cardiotokography is extremely rare. Minor deviations from the norm should not cause panic.

The results exhibits scores on the Fisher and Krebs scale. Indicators are assigned a digit from 0 to 2 units. Total The verdict makes a computer program . This allows you to avoid subjectivity when evaluating heartbeat.

Normal indicators

Decoding results are made taking into account the established benchmarks. Upon receipt of controversial data, the study is carried out re-on the other day. The following parameters indicate for healthy pregnancy.

  • Indicator variability In the interval from 5 to 25 shots per minute;
  • lack of deceration;
  • Basal rhythm varies from 120 to 160 strokes per minute;
  • Ktg 9 points or 10 on the Krebs scale;
  • The presence of five accelerations per hour of procedure.

10 points on Fisher - the norm. In this case, you can not worry about the child's condition. CTG 9 points is considered an average rate. Evaluation 8 points - lower boundaries .

Regarding this result, the opinion of the doctors will differ. Usually doctors are reinsured by appointing a woman additional research.

To eliminate possible complications, the patient is recommended to walk more and avoid stressful situations. When re-conducting the procedure, there are often 8 points transformed into CTG 9 points.

KTG 7 points - a controversial result, the presence of which requires additional research. If after a week of ktg 7 points, it is necessary to take appropriate measures. The indicator below 6 points indicates the high probability of fetal hypoxia. In this case, the patient is urgently hospitalized.

It is important! Polyvitamins and vitamins for pregnant women: what better in 1 trimester

Estimation below 4 points indicates Strong oxygen starvation . This state is considered critical. This situation shows an immediate delivery. It may be necessary to conduct an emergency cesarean section.

Does not harm a CTG fetus

Analysis of the heart rhythm does not pose a danger to crumbs and his mother. Therefore, it can be carried out an unlimited number of times. The only drawback of cardiotockography - Long-term pregnant in one pose . It delivers significant discomfort.

The study helps prevent the development of serious pathologies, therefore, it is undesirable to abandon the planned procedures. Timely diagnosis can save the life of a child and his mother.

Important! When evaluating the results of the CTG, it is necessary to take into account whether a woman takes drugs. The use of Ginipral provokes the tag heartbeat.

Output

KTG is one of the most important procedures for pregnancy. However, the conclusion of pregnancy can only be done. Based on a comprehensive examination . It should not be diagnosed independently. Only a medical worker can decipher KTG.

A source: https://beremenno.ru/diagnostika/ktg-rasshifrovka-RASSHIFROVKA-Rezultatov.html.

The site provides reference information solely to familiarize yourself. Diagnosis and treatment of diseases must be under the supervision of a specialist. All drugs have contraindications. Consultation of a specialist is obligatory!

Values ​​and indicators of KTG graphics, decoding and evaluation of results

Under normal conditions on

Ktg ( Cardiotokography )

A number of parameters are registered, which must be considered when evaluating the results of the study.

When CTGs are estimated:
  • basal rhythm;
  • Rhythm variability;
  • activation;
  • deceleration;
  • the number of fetal movements;
  • cuts in the uterus.

Basal rhythm ( FREE Cardiac Frequency Frequency )

Under normal CSS (

heart rate

) Fetal constantly fluctuates from reducing reduction. At the same time, the average value of the CSS for a certain period of time should remain relatively constant. The average meaning of the heart rate defined on the CTG for at least 10 minutes is called basal rhythm. In a healthy and normally developing fetal, basal rhythm can range from 110 to 150 heart abbreviations per minute.

Low and high rhythm variability ( scope of heart rate, oscillation )

As mentioned above, the basal rhythm is averaged indicator of the heart rate frequency of the fetus. Normally, the heart rate differs from impact to strike, due to the effect of vegetative (

autonomous

) nervous system on

heart

. Data Differences (

Basal Rhythm Deviations

) are called oscillations (

oscillations

).

During the study, the CTG is distinguished:
  • instant oscillations;
  • Slow oscillations.
Instant oscillations

Instant oscillations are expressed in time intervals between each other cardiac abbreviation. For example, in every second research, the heart can decline with different frequencies (

For example, 125, 113, 115, 130, 149, 128 shots per minute

). Such changes are called instant oscillations and in the norm should be registered with any KTG.

Instant oscillations can be:
  • Low ( Low variability )- in this case, the heart rate varies less than 3 strikes per minute ( For example, 125 and 127 ).
  • Middle ( Medium variability )- In this case, the CSS of the fetus varies by 3 - 6 shots per minute ( For example, 125 and 130 ).
  • High ( High variability )- At the same time, the CSS of the fetus changes more than 6 shots per minute ( For example, 125 and 135 ).

It is considered normal if high instant oscillations are recorded during CTG. At the same time, the presence of low instant oscillations may indicate the defeat of the fetus, including the presence of oxygen starvation (

Hypoxia

). It is worth noting that visually (

Naked eye

) It is impossible to determine instant oscillations. It is done automatically with the help of special computer programs.

Slow oscillations

As for slow oscillations, they are characterized as changes in the frequency of heartfrections of the fetus for one minute. On KTG, they are displayed in the form of small waves with sharp cloth.

Depending on the nature of slow oscillations, CTG can be:
  • Dumb Monotonne ) Type - In this case, the oscillations of the heart rate within a minute do not exceed 5 shots per minute.
  • Slightly indulgent ( transient ) Type - oscillations of heart rate ranging from 6 to 10 shots per minute.
  • Absent ( wave-like ) Type - oscillations of heart rate from 11 to 25 blows per minute.
  • Salta ( Hanging ) Type - CSS fluctuations more than 25 blows per minute.

The wave-like cardiotocogram type is considered normal, indicating the good state of the fetus. With other types of KTH, the fruit damage is likely (

In particular, when the type of type is likely to have a cruise of cords around the neck of the baby

).

Also, when evaluating slow oscillations, their number is taken into account, that is, how many times the heart rate increased or decreased (

compared with basal rhythm

) in a minute.

Akelerations and deceleration

During the study on cardiotocogram, more pronounced heart rate fluctuations can be recorded, which is also important to take into account during the evaluation of the results.

On KTGs can register:
  • Akelerations. These are the rates of the Fruit CSS for 15 and more blows per minute ( compared with basal rhythm ), preserving for at least 15 seconds ( On KTG look like the upper line climbs visible to the naked eye ). The presence of different in the form and duration of activation is a normal phenomenon that must be present on the KTG healthy, normally developing fetus ( Normally should register at least 2 activations for 10 minutes of research. ). It is also due to the effect of vegetative ( autonomous ) nervous system for heart rate. At the same time, it is worth noting that the same in the form and duration of the activation may indicate the defeat of the fetus.
  • Decomleration. This term denotes the deceleration of the Fruit of the Fetal to 15 and more beats per minute ( compared with basal rhythm ). Decomlerations may be early ( begin simultaneously with the contraction of the uterus and end with it simultaneously ) or late ( Start 30 seconds after the start of the cutting of the uterus and ends much later ). In any case, the presence of such deceleratives may indicate a disruption of the delivery of oxygen to the fetus. It is also worth noting that the so-called variable decerations that are not associated with uterine abbreviations can sometimes occur. If they are shallow ( That is, the heart rate decreases no more than 25 - 30 blows per minute ) And not often observed, it does not represent dangers for the fetus.

Fruit chapel rate per hour ( Why does the child not stir for KTG? )

During cardiotockography, not only the frequency and variability of heartfrections of the fetus are recorded, but also their relationship with active movements (

chapels

) Fruit, which should be at least 6 per hour of research. However, it should be immediately noted that there is no single norm for the number of fetal movements. His movements in the womb of mothers may be due to a variety of factors (

In particular, a period of sleep or activity, mother's nutrition, its emotional state, metabolism and so on

). That is why the number of movements is estimated only in conjunction with other data.

The movements of the fetus are determined on the bottom line of the cardiotokogram, which registers the cuts in the uterus. The fact is that the uterine contraction is registered by the sensor, which measures the circumference of the belly of a woman. When the uterus is reduced, its abdomen circle changes somewhat, which determines the special sensor. At the same time, during the movement (

Movement

) Fruit in the uterus The abdominal circle can also change, which will also be registered by the sensor.

Unlike uterine contractions (

Which on the bottom line of cardiotocograms look like smoothly growing and also smoothly decreasing waves

), fetal movements are determined in the form of sharp lifts or jumps. It is determined by the fact that when cutting the uterus, its muscle fibers begin to shrink relatively slowly, while the movements of the fetus are characterized by relative speed and sharpness.

The cause of lack of or weakly pronounced fetal movements can be:
  • Phase rest. This is a normal phenomenon, since in the intrauterine period the child most of the time is in a state reminiscent of sleep. In this case, any active movements may not be absent.
  • Pronounced defeat of the fetus. With severe hypoxia, moving fetus may also be absent.

Is it possible to see the tone of the uterus when CTG?

Theoretically, the uterus tone is also estimated during the CTG. At the same time, it is almost more complicated to practically make it.

Measurement of tone and contractile activity of the uterus is called a tokography. Cokograph may be outer (

It is part of the KTG and is carried out using a strain gauge sensor installed on the surface of the mother's belly

) and internal (

To do this, a special sensor needs to be introduced into the uterus

). To accurately measure the tone of the uterus is possible only with the help of internal strain. However, perform it during

Pregnancy

or

Rodov

(

that is, before the birth of a child

) It is impossible. That is why when analyzing the CTG, the uterus tone is automatically set to 8 - 10 millimeters of the mercury pillar. In the future, when registering the contractile activity of the uterus, indicators are estimated that exceed this level.

What do interest on the KTG monitor mean?

On most KTG monitors, the tone of the uterus is displayed in percentage, which is calculated using a strain gauge sensor. As mentioned above, it is impossible to directly measure the tone of the uterus during pregnancy, therefore it is considered to be equal to 8 - 10 millimeters of mercury pillars. With each uterine reduction, the muscle tone of the uterus rises, and the severity of this increase is expressed as a percentage (

in relation to the basal, previously installed tone

). Consequently, the higher the percentage expression on the monitor, the higher the tone of the uterus and the stronger the uterine contraction.

What the contractions look like ( cuts of uterus ) on ktg?

As mentioned above, the tone of the uterus is set in the program in advance. At a given level there is a lower line of the tokograms at a time when the uterine cuts are absent. Muscular cuts in the uterus always begin in the area of ​​its bottom, that is, where the sensor is installed. At the same time, muscle fibers are gradually moving to the region of the uterus, as a result of which its size increases slightly. At the same time, the KTG marks a smooth rise in the lower line. After the end of the contraction, the uterus is smoothly relaxed that the CTG is defined as the same smooth descent.

Will CTG training sessions ( False ) Fight?

Cardiotocogram may be displayed both real and training contractions. Training fights may occur in the second and third trimester of pregnancy and are short-term and neurotic cuts in the muscles of the uterus, which do not lead to the opening of the neck and the beginning of childbirth. This is a normal phenomenon that characterizes the normal activity of the uterus. Some women do not feel them, while others can complain about light discomfort in the top of the abdomen, where during the training fight you can take care of the compacted bottom of the uterus.

During the training bout, there is also a slight reduction in the uterus and an increase in its size in the bottom of the bottom, which is captured by a sensitive strain gauge sensor. At the same time, the CTGs will be noted the same changes as with conventional fights, but less pronounced (

that is, the height and duration of the bottom line will be smaller

). By duration, the training fight takes no more than a minute, which can also be defined on the chart.

What does sinusoidal rhythm mean on ktg?

The sinusoidal type of cardiotocograms is observed in disruption of the state of the fetus, in particular with the development of oxygen starvation or for other reasons.

The sinusoidal rhythm is characterized by:
  • rare and slow oscillations ( less than 6 per minute );
  • low oscillation amplitude ( CSS Fetal changes no more than 10 shots per minute compared with basal rhythm ).

In order for the rhythm to be sinusoidal, these changes should be registered on the CTG for at least 20 minutes. The risk of intrauterine damage or even the death of the fetus at the same time increases significantly. That is why the question of an urgent delivery is raised (

Through the cesarean section

).

What does STV mean ( Short-Term Variation )?

This is a mathematical indicator that is calculated only when computer processing CTG. Roughly speaking, it displays instant oscillations of the heart rate of the fetus in short intervals (

that is, similar to instant oscillations

). The principle of evaluation and calculation of this indicator is understandable only to those skilled in the art, but its level may also indicate the defeat of the fetus in the womb.

Normally, the STV should be more than 3 milliseconds (

ms.

). With a decrease in this indicator to 2.6 ms, the risk of intrauterine lesion and fetal death rises to 4%, and with a decrease in STV less than 2.6 ms - up to 25%.

Evaluation of the CTG on the points ( on the scale of Fisher, Krebs )

For a simplified and more accurate study of the cardiotocogram, a system of evaluation of it on the points was proposed. The essence of the method is that each of the signs under consideration is estimated by a certain number of balls (

depending on its characteristics

). Further, all points are summed up, on the basis of what conclusions are made about the general state of the fetus at the moment.

A lot of different scales were proposed, but the Fisher scale remains the most common today, which is considered the most reliable and accurate.

The CTG score on the Fischer scale includes:
  • basal rhythm;
  • Rhythm variability ( Slow oscillations );
  • activation;
  • Decomleration.

To date, the Fisher's scale is most often used in the Krebs modification, in which other than the listed parameters also takes into account the number of fetal movements within 30 minutes of the study.

Fisher's scale in the modification of Krebs when evaluating KTG
Estimated parameter
Number of points
1 point
2 points
3 points
Basal rhythm
Less than 100 shots per minute.
100 - 120 beats per minute.
121 - 159 shots per minute.
More than 100 shots per minute.
160 - 180 beats per minute.
Amplitude slow oscillations
Less than 3 shots per minute.
From 3 to 5 shots per minute.
From 6 to 25 shots per minute.
Number of slow oscillations
Less than 3.
From 3 to 6.
More than 6.
Number of accelerations
Akelections are absent.
From 1 to 4 sporadic ( random ) Acoperations in 30 minutes.
More than 5 sporadic activations in 30 minutes.
Decomleration
Late or variable.
Late or variable.
There are no or early.
Number of fetal movements
No missing.
1 - 2 chapels in 30 minutes.
More than 3 chapels in 30 minutes.
Depending on the number of points scored, the state of the fetus may be:
  • Satisfactory ( 9 - 12 points ). In this case, it is recommended to continue observation of a pregnant woman.
  • Unsatisfactory compensated ( 6 - 8 points ). In this case, the likelihood of intrauterine damage to the fetus is high ( Due to oxygen starvation or for other reasons ), However, there is no direct threat to its existence. It is recommended regularly ( 1 - 2 times a day ) Repeat CTG in order to early detect possible complications.
  • Unsatisfactory decompensated ( Less than 5 points ). In this case, damage to the fetus is so pronounced that the likelihood of his death in the mother's womb in the near future. The only reasonable solution will be as quickly as possible.

Assessment of the CTG according to Figo ( Figo. )

This method of assessing the cardiotocogram was developed by the International Federation

Gynecologists

и

Okusher

(

International Federation of Gynecology and Obtetrics - Figo

). Like the Fisher method, this scale allows you to identify pathological deviations on KTG.

Assessment of the CTG according to the technique of fig
Criterion
Interpretation of results
Norm
Prepatology ( "Suspicious" ktg )
Pathology
Basal rhythm
110 - 150 beats per minute.
100 - 109 beats per minute.
Less than 100 or more 170 shots per minute.
151 - 170 beats per minute.
Rhythm variability
5 - 25 shots per minute.
5 - 10 shots per minute for 40 minutes.
Less than 5 shots per minute.
Sinusoidal rhythm.
Number of accelerations
More than 2 for 40 minutes.
None within 40 minutes.
No general.
Decomleration
There are no or single variable.
Variable.
Variable or late.

Dawza Redman Criteria

These criteria are also used to assess the state of the fetus during the CTG. They are calculated by a special machine in automatic mode.

Dowza Redman criteria include:
  • the presence of at least one movement of the fetus or 3 accelerations;
  • the presence of acception or high variability;
  • STV at least 3 milliseconds;
  • lack of decelerations;
  • lack of sinusoidal rhythm;
  • No error in the end of the record.

Subject to observance

Detection

) All these criteria research CTG can be completed after 10 to 15 minutes.

Why does KTG writes "Criteria not observed"?

Some machinations for measuring cardiotockography are equipped with embedded computers that automatically analyze the recorded data and compare them with the above-mentioned Dowza Redmann criteria. If all these criteria are observed, the state of the fetus is regarded as satisfactory (

that is, he is at the moment nothing threatens

). In this case, the inscription "Criteria" lights up on the monitor or screen of the device. After this inscription appears, the study can be terminated.

If the inscription "Criteria is not complied with" is displayed on the monitor, then one or more of the listed indicators does not correspond to the norm. In this case, the study must continue for a minimum of 40 minutes. If the inscription "Criteria is observed" will not appear, perhaps there is a violation of the state of the fetus in the womb. At the same time, a more detailed examination of the woman is recommended, as well as the repetition of the CTG in the dynamics (

On the same day or every other day

).

PSP ( Future status indicator ) on ktg ( Primary and pronounced violations )

The fetal status indicator is also one of the ways to evaluate the results of KTG. The calculation of this indicator is performed by the device in automatic mode, and only numbers are displayed on the monitor, which characterize the state of the fetus.

The calculation of the PSP during pregnancy can determine:
  • 0 - 1.0 score - The state of the fetus is satisfactory.
  • 1.1 - 2.0 points - Perhaps there are initial disorders of the fetus.
  • 2.1 - 3.0 points - Perhaps there are pronounced disorders of the fetus.
  • 3.1 - 4.0 points - critical defeat of the fetus ( The risk of intrauterine death is maximum ).

What does a positive and negative non-pass test for ktg?

When evaluating KTG, a series of tests can be applied, which allow you to more accurately assess the state of the fetus and its reaction to external influences. The so-called unresponsive test is considered the most informative. Its essence lies in the registration of activation (

Increases Fruit Czech Minimum at least 15 seconds

) arising in response to the movements of the fetus registered on the tokogram.

Unresolus test can be:
  • Reactive ( Negative ). In this case, within 40 minutes of research, a minimum of 2 fetal movements must be registered, accompanied by activation. This will mean that the nervous system of the fetus works normally, and its general condition is satisfactory.
  • Areactive ( positive ). In this case, the movements of the fetus are not accompanied by activations. This indicates a pronounced violation of the state of the fetus and the defeat of its vegetative nervous system responsible for the development of compensatory reactions.

It is worth noting that the evaluation of the results of a non-pass test can only be carried out with other data. In the case of a positive test, an urgent trusting operation is shown (

cesarean section

).

What does KTG show if the child is sleeping?

During sleep (

Phase rest

) The child is relatively fixed. At the same time, the CCS of the Fetal and the cuts in the uterus will also be recorded on the cardiotocogram, but there will be no fetal movements, nor accelerations or sufficient variability of rhythm. To judge the condition of the child according to such results will be impossible, as a result of which the study will have to repeat (

On the same day or every other day, depending on the specific clinical situation and standing mothers

).

Is it possible to determine the approach of childbirth?

During the study of the CTG, it is possible to obtain indirect data indicating the approach of childbirth. For example, during the procedure, cutouts of the uterus are recorded (

their frequency and severity

). As we approach and the beginning of the generic activity, uterine contractions will become increasingly frequent and strong, which will be noticeable in the second (

Nower

) Lines on KTG. Therefore, the more often such cuts will be recorded, the closer will be the moment of childbirth.

Is it possible to determine the sex of the child on ktg?

It is impossible to determine the sex of the child in the CTG, since the sensors used are not evaluated or the external gender signs nor the hormonal fetal background. At the same time, the heart rate and cardiac rhythm in boys and girls in the intrauterine period do not differ. To determine the floor of the future child, other methods are used, in particular the usual ultrasound study (

Allows you to determine the floor of the fetus for 15 weeks of intrauterine development

).

CTG values ​​and indicators, interpretation and evaluation of results for various pathologies

There are a number of pathological conditions that can be identified using the correct decryption of the CTG. The earlier pathological changes will be revealed, the sooner the doctor will take measures to eliminate them, which can save the life of the child.

High, fetal heartbeat ( tachycardia )

Tachycardia

It is considered a resistant increase in the CSS of the fetus of more than 160 beats per minute, which remains the minimum for ten minutes.

Tachycardia of the fetus can be:
  • Easy - CSS varies from 160 to 179 beats per minute.
  • Pronounced - CSS more than 180 shots per minute.
The cause of the tachycardia of the fetus can be:
  • The initial stage of hypoxia. After 32 weeks of intrauterine development, the health of the fetus reacts to stressful factors as well as the heart of an adult, due to the effect of vegetative ( autonomous ) nervous system. In the development of hypoxia ( Oxygen starvation ) compensatory reactions are activated, the purpose of which is to ship more blood ( and oxygen ) To fabrics. One of the first such reactions is tachycardia, that is, a pronounced increase in heart rate.
  • Increase body temperature. Increased temperature is accompanied by a uniform increase in heart rate ( both in an adult and the fetus in the third trimester of pregnancy ). Consequently, even with an increase in the body temperature of the mother up to 37 - 38 and more degrees, the fetus will also be marked by a compensatory increase in heart rate.
  • Fetal infection. In the penetration of the infection, the immune system of the fetus is activated ( which by the end of pregnancy is already partially developed ), as a result, biologically active substances will be distinguished in its blood flow. These substances will stimulate the temperature regulation center in the child's head brain, as a result of which the temperature of his body and heart rate will increase.
  • Receiving matter of some medicines. Medicinal preparations that increase the heart rate from the mother can penetrate the placenta in the blood flow of the fetus, causing exactly the same changes in its body.
  • Diseases of the thyroid gland at the mother. With the reinforced function of the thyroid gland in the blood flow of the mother, the hormone-produced hormones are distinguished ( Tyroxin and triiodothyronine ), one of the effects of which is to increase body temperature. This is reflected in the state of the fetus, which can manifest itself a light or pronounced tachycardia.

Bradycardia

Bradycardia

(

Reduced heart rate less than 100 shots per minute, registered for at least 10 minutes

) It may indicate a pronounced defeat of the fetus.

The cause of bradycardia of the fetus may be:
  • Heavy hypoxia. In this case, the functions of nerve cells regulating the activity of the heart muscle are disturbed, resulting in the heart rate slows down.
  • Reflex arrhythmia. This phenomenon can develop during the passage of the fetus through the generic paths of the mother, when the squeezing of its head leads to a reflex deceleration of the heart rate.
  • Receiving some medicines that slow down the heart rate.
  • A pronounced decline in the body temperature of the mother.

Monotonous Future Heartbeat

The monotone is considered to be KTG, on which fluctuations in the frequency of heartfrections of the fetus (

Slow oscillations

) Do not exceed 5 shots per minute. This indicates a damage to the nervous system, resulting in a vegetative (

autonomous

) The nervous system ceases to influence the frequency of heart abbreviations. The reason for this may be severe hypoxia (

Oxygen starvation

), infection,

injury

etc.

Signs of hypoxia fruit

Hypoxia (

Oxygen starvation

) The fetus can develop in violation of the process of delivering oxygen from the maternal body through the placenta. The reasons for this during pregnancy can be a lot (

Pulling placenta, misuse of the placenta, infection and so on

). Moreover, during childbirth, hypoxia may arise due to the fallout of the umbilical cord, cordial cords around the fetal neck,

multiple pregnancy

.

With acute (

Fast developing

) hypoxia is extremely important in time to diagnose it and eliminate, since otherwise the nervous system of the fetus and the death of nerve CNS nervous cells may occur (

central nervous system

) that may cause a developmental violation or even intrauterine fetal death. That is why any conductive KTG doctor should be able to recognize the main signs of hypoxia.

For the presence of hypoxia of the fetus may indicate:
  • Tachycardia ( At the initial stage );
  • Bradycardia ( In the late Stage );
  • low rhythm variability;
  • Uniform activations ( same in shape and duration );
  • late deceleration;
  • atypical variable decelerations;
  • sinusoidal rhythm on ktg;
  • pronounced fetal movements ( accompanied by too frequent activation ).

The identification of any of these features should be a reason for a more detailed examination of a woman and at least for repeated CTG research. If several signs of acute hypoxia immediately consider the possibility of urgent delivery (

By caesarean section

).

What will CTG show when losing cords around the fetal neck?

In CTG, signs of fetus hypoxia, characteristic of a cordhouse of cords around his neck, can be revealed. The essence of this pathology is that Pupovina (

in which blood vessels driving blood, oxygen and nutrients to the fetus pass

) It turns around several times around the neck of the child and can tighten tightly. At the same time, during the movements of the fetus, the blood vessels of the umbilical cord vessels can be partially or completely clarified, as a result of which the fruit will begin to test acute oxygen fasting.

On KTG, it can manifest itself alternating sharp rates of heart rate (

characteristic of the initial stage of hypoxia

), followed by a sharp decline in heart rate (

characteristic of more pronounced hypoxia

). These changes are associated with the movements of the fetus recorded on the tokogram. The identification of such changes is an indication of an urgent delivery by cesarean section, since otherwise irreversible damage to the nervous system of the fetus and its death is possible.

KTG at Malovodia

Cardiotocography does not allow you to identify, confirm or disprove

Malovodia

. The manifold is called a pathological condition, in which the amount of accumulating water is below the norm. The reasons for this may be set (

both from the mother's side and from the moant of the fetus

) However, in most cases, the lowland is associated with an increased risk of intrauterine damage and fetal death.

Although it is impossible to diagnose a small manner using KTG, during the study, signs of initial or pronounced fetus destruction can be identified (

In particular, the increase or decrease in heart rate, signs of hypoxia and so on

) What can serve as a reason for a more detailed examination of a woman. If on the background of the "bad" ktg will be detected by a small way, should be raised the question of premature delivery. At the same time, it is worth noting that even with a confirmed lowland, a woman may have an absolutely normal cardiotocogram.

Will KTG show the leakage of the accumulating waters?

As in the case of the lowland, the CTG does not allow diagnosing the leakage of spindle water. At the same time, this procedure can identify pathological changes (

Disorders of heart rate, signs of hypoxia

), developing on the background of long-term leaking. The fact is that the accumulative water plays an important role in the development of the fetus. With their disadvantage, the metabolic processes may be violated, the risk of infection and other complications increases. All this can lead to the defeat of the central nervous system of the fetus, which will noticeably on the CTG.

Is KTG harmful ( can harm the mother or fruit )?

With proper execution, cardiotocography does not make absolutely no harm, so it can be repeated as much as necessary (

even several times a day

). Complications may occur in violation of the procedure execution techniques (

For example, when the sensor fasteners can occur too tight, mechanical damage to the fetus may occur

).

Can I buy ( to rent ) KTG home apparatus?

To buy a CTG measurement device can any person who wants to conduct this study at home. At the same time, it is worth noting that the prices of such devices (

For individuals

) high enough (

account is on hundreds of thousand rubles

). In addition, if a person does not have special knowledge (

that is not a doctor

), It will not be able to interpret correctly and evaluate the data obtained during the study. Errors can be allowed and during the installation of sensors, which can also cause incorrect results. That is why the purchase of this apparatus is considered an inappropriate occupation. It will be much easier to regularly visit the attending physician-gynecologist or a female consultation department, where, if necessary, a woman will make KTGs or other studies, as well as correctly appreciate the results and prescribe treatment (

If necessary

).

Where ( In which clinic, women's consultation ) Can I make ktg?

Most of the modern clinics and women's consultations are equipped with KTG devices. In many cities of the Russian Federation, it is not difficult to carry out this procedure.

Sign up for research

To make an appointment to a doctor or diagnostics, you just need to call on a single phone number

+7 495 488-20-52 in Moscow

Or

+7 812 416-38-96 in St. Petersburg

The operator listens to you and redirect the call to the desired clinic, or accept an order for writing to the specialist you need.

In Moscow

Name clinic
The address
Telephone
Cm clinic
Ul. Clara Zetkin, house 33/28.
+7 ( 499. ) 519-38-82
He is a clinic
Ul. Vorontsovskaya, House 8, Building 6.
+7 ( 495. ) 927-02-85
Medic City
Ul. Poltava, house 2.
+7 ( 499. ) 519-37-36
Metropolitan medical clinic
Ul. Sretenka House 9.
+7 ( 495. ) 775-42-06
ProfMedpick
Ul. Minusinskaya house 3.
+7 ( 499. ) 519-37-17

In St. Petersburg ( St. Petersburg )

Name clinic
The address
Telephone
Cm clinic
Avenue drumors, house 19.
+7 ( 812. ) 618-99-78
Center of Medicine Futal
14 line of Vasilyevsky Island, house 7.
+7 ( 812. ) 245-34-68
Family Planning Center "Medica"
Etc. Tores, house 72.
+8 ( 812. ) 305-18-40.
Baltic Human Reproduction Institute
Ul. Vivid, house 10.
+7 ( 812. ) 458-89-69
Reproduction Clinic and Genetics
13 line of Vasilyevsky Island, house 10a.
+7 ( 822. ) 425-46-38

In Ekaterinburg

Name clinic
The address
Telephone
Ekaterinburg Medical Center
Ul. Rodontite, house 10.
+7 ( 343. ) 386-19-87
Medical Center Harmony
Ul. Cherepanova, house 28, 1st floor.
+7 ( 343. ) 302-12-59
City Clinical Hospital Number 40
Ul. Volgograd, house 189.
+7 ( 343. ) 240-02-91

In Rostov-on-Don

Name clinic
The address
Telephone
Man and Eco Reproduction Center
Ul. Bodyray, House 90 A.
+7 ( 863. ) 235-87-77
Regional Clinical Hospital Number 2
Ul. 1 equestrian army, house 33.
+7 ( 863. ) 254-81-00
Juno Medical Center
Ul. Soviet, house 51.
+7 ( 863. ) 221-73-98

In Nizhniy Novgorod

Name clinic
The address
Telephone
Clinic Aist.
Ul. Site, house 42, 2nd floor.
+7 ( 831. ) 261-39-72.
Alpha Health Center
Ul. Maxim Gorky, house 48/50.
+7 ( 831. ) 433-77-77
Clinic Alexandria
Small Pokrovskaya Street, House 2a, 4th floor.
+7 ( 873. ) 280-99-01

In Voronezh

Name clinic
The address
Telephone
Human Reproduction Clinic "Cradle"
Ul. Hilly, house 14.
+7 ( 473. ) 207-05-48
Medical Center "Diagnostics Plus"
Moscow prospect, house 11.
+7 ( 473. ) 251-91-91

In Krasnodar

Name clinic
The address
Telephone
Clinic "Embryry"
Ul. General Schifrin, house 5.
+7 ( 861. ) 992-26-21
Clinic "First word"
Ul. Topolina Alley, house 2/1.
+7 ( 861. ) 200-16-11

In Novosibirsk

Name clinic
The address
Telephone
Sanitas Clinic
Vokzalnaya highway, house 16.
+7 ( 383. ) 233-66-00
Medical Center NGMA
Ul. Nikitina, house 20.
+7 ( 383. ) 266-65-02
State Novosibirsk Regional Clinical Hospital
Ul. Nemirovich-Danchenko, house 130.
+7 ( 383. ) 346-01-77

In Tver

Name clinic
The address
Telephone
Clinic restorative medicine
Krasnoflotskaya embankment, house 4.
+7 ( 4822. ) 78-00-60
Centered Expert
Ul. Soviet, house 33.
+7 ( 4822. ) 630-333.

In Volgograd

Name clinic
The address
Telephone
Genom Volga Clinic
Lenin Avenue, house 102a.
+7 ( 8442. ) 99-05-51
Clinic Panacea
Metallurgist prospect, house 30a.
+7 ( 8442. ) 59-59-59
Reproductive Health Clinic "Demeter"
Ul. Nevskaya, house 11a.
+7 ( 8442. ) 55-11-21

For all issues related to the functioning of the site, you can contact e-mail: e-mail address: [email protected] or by phone: +7 (495) 665-82-37

Decoding KTG during pregnancy

During the baby tooling, the future mother recognizes a lot of new things for himself, ultrasound, BPD, DBK, HCG. They become understandable and even familiar. In the last trimester, another "classified" diagnostic study - KTG is appointed. His holding usually does not cause questions, but only a little to decipher the results. How to understand what is written in the conclusion of the CTG, we will tell in this material.

What it is?

Cardiotokography (this is how the name of the survey is so deciphered) is a non-invasive, safe and painless way to find out what condition is a baby, as he feels. There is such a survey, Starting from 28-29 weeks of pregnancy. Most often, the direction on the CTG future mothers receive on 32-34 week for the first time, and then the study is repeated immediately before the start of the generic process.

During the Childbies themselves, KTG is often used to determine whether the baby has no sharp hypoxia in the process of passing through the generic paths.

If pregnancy is working well, there is no need for an additional CTG. If the doctor has concerns that it proceeds with complications, then Ktg is appointed individually Some of it has to take place weekly or even once a few days. Harm from such a diagnosis is not for a child nor for mom.

Cardiotokography allows you to learn Features of the heartbeat kid. For any unfavorable circumstance, the children's heart reacts immediately by changing the frequency of his beating. In addition, the method determines the reduction of the mother-in-law muscles. Registration changes occurs in real time, all parameters are recorded simultaneously, synchronously and displayed in graphs.

The first schedule is a tachogram showing the changes in the heartbeat. The second is a graphic image of the uterine cuts and motels of the fetus. It is called a hysterogram or tokogram (women often use the "Toko" reduction). Cardiac rhythm of crumbs determines the highly sensitive ultrasonic sensor, and the stress of the uterus and movement is trazed with a strain gauge sensor.

The data obtained is analyzed by a special program that displays certain numerical values ​​to the form form that we have to decipher together.

Technique for holding

The future mother should come to the CTG in the calm arrangement of the Spirit, because any unrest and experiences of a woman can affect the heartbeat of her baby. It is advisable to first eat, go to the toilet, because the examination lasts for quite a long time - From half an hour up to an hour, and sometimes more.

You should turn off the cell phone, conveniently settled in the position, which will allow you to carry out the coming half an hour with comfort. You can sit down, lie on the couch, take a half-sized body position, in some cases KTG can be carried out even standing, the main thing is that the future mother is convenient.

An ultrasonic sensor will be fixed on the stomach in the field of chest chest baby, which will fix the slightest changes in the character of the heartbeat and heart rate.

On top of it wear a wide belt - a tensimetric sensor, which will be for insignificant fluctuations in the volume of the belly of the future mother to determine when the uterine abbreviation or movement of the baby occurred. After that, the program turns on and the study begins.

At this stage, a pregnant woman may have two questions - which means percentages on the fetal monitor and what the sounds that are coming during CTG are talking about. Let's help you figure it out:

  • Sounds during the study. The explanation does not need a friend of the child's heartbeat. Previously, the ultrasound experts probably gave a woman to listen to a little heart. During the CTG, a woman if the device is equipped with a speaker, will hear it constantly. Suddenly, a woman can hear a long loud sound, similar to interference. So hear the movements of the child. If the device suddenly starts to squeak, it says about the loss of the signal (the baby turned and significantly retired from the ultrasonic sensor, the passage of the signal was broken).
  • Interest on the screen. Percentages denotes the contractile activity of the uterus. The more active the main reproductive female body is reduced, the greater the form of grounds for the hospitalization of a woman. If the values ​​are approaching 80-100%, we are talking about the beginning of the bouts before childbirth. Indicators within 20-50% scare a woman should not - give birth to her exactly early.

Decoding results

Understand the abundance of numbers and complex terms is not so difficult, as it seems when I first look at the result of the CTG. The main thing is to understand and well imagine what concepts are we talking about.

Basal heart rate

Basic, or basal cardiac rhythm - averaged toddler heartbeat frequency. Mom, who will come to the CTG for the first time, may surprise that the heart of the crumbs beats very unevenly, the indicators change with each second - 135, 146, 152, 130, and so on. All these changes are not soldered from the program, and for the first ten minutes of the survey, it displays the average value that for a given baby will be basic or basal.

This parameter in the third trimester does not change depending on the specific week, as some pregnant people think. And at 35-36 weeks, and in 38-40, the basal heart rate only reflects the average value of the frequency of the children's heart, and does not indicate a gestation on the period of gestation or the sex of the child.

The norm of basal heart rate is 110-160 beats per minute.

Variability

As can be understood from the sound of the word, the options of something are hidden under this concept. In this case, options for deviation of heart rate from basic values ​​are considered. The medicine uses another name of this phenomenon, which can also meet in conclusion - oscillation. They are slow and fast.

Quick reflect the slightest changes in real time, because, as already mentioned, every blow of the heart of the fetus displays different heart rate. Slow oscillations are low, medium and high. If a minute of real-time, the frequency of children's heart cuts was less than 3 strikes per minute, they speak of low variability and low oscillation. If there was a scope for a minute from three to six blows, we are talking about medium variability, and if the oscillations in one direction or another were more than six shots - the variability is considered high.

To imagine it clearly, we give an example: per minute the device registered a change in the CSS of the Fetal from 150 to 148. The difference is less than 3 shots per minute, it means that it is low variability. And if in a minute, the heart rate has changed from 150 to 159, then the difference is 9 shocks - it is high variability. The rate for a healthy kid with uncomplicated pregnancy is fast and high oscillations.

Slow oscillations are several species:

  • monotonous (CHSS changes for five and less shock per minute);
  • transitional (CISS per minute changes by 6-10 shots per minute);
  • wave-like (CSS is changing at 11-25 shots per minute);
  • Jount (more than 25 blows per minute).

If the jump of the heart rate looks like this: 140-142 Ud / min, then we are talking about monotonous slow oscillation, if the heartbeat frequency has changed from 130 to 160 in a minute, then we are talking about jumping slow oscillation. The normal value for a healthy baby is the wave-like oscillations, and other species almost always accompany the various pathology of pregnancy - the curse of the umbilical, hypoxia, a rhesus conflict.

Akelerations and deceleration

Quantitative change is oscillations, and high-quality is activation and deceptors. Rhythm's increase - activation. On the chart it looks like a peak, a teeth. Rhythm gentle - deceptorization, graphically depicted as a peak of top down, that is, the failure. Akeleton is an increase in the frequency of the baby's heartbeat by 15 blows per minute and more and the preservation of such a rhythm for more than 15 seconds.

Deteruration is a decrease in the value of the heart rate from the base value by 15 shots to a smaller side and the preservation of such a rhythm within 15 or more.

There is nothing bad in the activation themselves, if they are registered more than two in 10 minutes. However, too frequent activations, the same duration and occurring at an equal period of time - an alarm, a child, uncomfortable. Decomleration (regeneration) A healthy baby in principle is not peculiar, but a small amount of their quantities with the rest of the normal cardiac cards may be an option for the norm.

Moveings

How many chapels should be, the question is quite complicated, because there is no definite answer to it. All children have different motor activity, they affect them not only their own well-being, but also factors, independent of it - the mother's nutrition, its mood and emotional state and even the weather outside the window.

If the baby wants to sleep at the moment when you need to do CTG, his movements will be minimized.

Considered a good sign If during the KTG the child registered at least several movements: For half an hour - at least three, in an hour - at least six. Too frequent sharp movements - an alarming sign that can talk about violations in a state of crumbs. Too rare movements - also not too good an indicator. However, if all other KTG values ​​are normal, then the doctor suggests that the child simply slept all this hour, and will ask the woman to come to the examination again in a few days.

It is important not so much the movements themselves, how much the relationship between them and the number of accelerations. In a normal healthy child, when driving, the heart rate increases. If this connection is violated and movements are not accompanied by the rates of heart rate, and the activation themselves arise spontaneously and are not associated with the movement, the welfare of crumbs is put into question. On the chapel chart look like dashes at the bottom, where uterine cuts are noted.

Uterine abbreviations

Reduced muscles depicted in the lower chart. Visually, they look like wave-like differences, because the cut smoothly begins and no less smoothly ends. No need to confuse them with movements, they are marked with short vertical dashes. Interestingly, the strain gauge sensor-belt fixes even those abbreviations that a woman does not feel physically.

Interest means contractile activity.

The tone of the uterus to determine on the CTG is definitely impossible, because the pressure inside the uterus actually measure only in one way - to introduce a thin long-length electrode sensor in its cavity, but it is impossible, while the fetal bubble is intimidated, and the birth has not begun. Therefore, the value of the tone of the uterus is constant - For the basic norm, 8-10 millimeters of mercury pillars are taken. The program analyzing all indicators by the contractile ability of the main female reproductive body can "conclude" that this pressure is exceeded. Only then the doctor can suspect the tone, but it will take a manual study on the gynecological chair and ultrasound.

Sinusoidal rhythm

If in the conclusion, the "sinusoidal rhythm is 0 min", then this is a very good indicator. Such a rhythm, designated on the chart as repeated at equal intervals of the sinusoids, the same duration, indicates severe pathologies. The number of activation and decelerations is minimal or absent at all. If such a graphic picture is saved for about 20 minutes, doctors can suspect large problems.

Such a rhythm is in children with severe noncompensated hypoxia, severe intrauterine infection, strong rezv conflict. Seven babies out of ten, on the CTG showed a sinusoidal rhythm for 20 minutes and more, die intrauterine or immediately after the appearance of the light.

Table of main indicators:

Fetal State Assessment - Points

To assess the state of the fetus, doctors use methods for counting results in points. Women often often cause substantiated questions, which means 4 or 5-6 points on KTG, which 10, 11 or 12 points can speak about. Interpretation depends on how the program operated on the program or as the doctor counted the result, if the estimate was "manually".

The fiscura assessment system is most often used.

This is a twelve-ball system in which a certain number of points are charged for each indicator.

By Fischer.

The calculation table for Fisher (Krebs modification):

Interpretation of the results looks like this:

  • 9,10, 11, 12 points - The child is healthy and feels quite comfortable, his condition does not cause concerns;

  • 6.7.8 points - The life of the baby does not threaten anything, but his condition causes concerns, since such an indicator may be a sign of initial pathological changes and unfavorable exposure from the outside. A woman should more often do KTG to keep track of the baby in dynamics;

  • 5 points and less - The state of the child is threatening, the risk of intrauterine death, stillbirth, neonatal death in the early postpartum period. A woman is sent to the hospital, where they conduct urgent diagnosis and in most cases everything ends with an emergency cesarean cross section to save the baby's life.

By Figo.

This assessment table was adopted by specialists of the International Association of Gynecologists and Obstener. It is less common in Russia than the assessment of Fisher, but more clearly for future mothers.

Interpretation Table by Figo:

PSP

This is a key value that is displayed on the basis of all measured and analyzed parameters.

It is deciphered as "fetal status".

It is very difficult to imagine that algorithms and mathematical formulas, this calculation is very difficult if the regiment does not lie at home the Mathematics. This is not required. The future mother is enough to know which indicators of the PPC consider the norm and what they mean:

  • PSP is less than 1.0. Such a result means that the kid is healthy, it is comfortable, his well-being and state is not broken. This is a good result, in which the doctor lets her pregnant woman with a CTG home with a clean conscience, because with the baby nothing bad should have happened.

  • PSP from 1.1 to 2.0 . This result indicates likely initial changes other than normal self-adhesion. Violations with such a PSP are not deadly, but also impossible to ignore them. Therefore, a woman is asked to come to the CTG more often, on average - once a week.

  • PSPs from 2.1 to 3.0. Such indicators of the state of the fetus are considered very disturbing. They may indicate strong discomfort, which is experiencing a child in the maternal womb. The reason for the dysfunction of the baby may become a rhesus conflict, the condition of the deficiency of oxygen, the accused of umbilical cords, intrauterine infection. Pregnant guide to the hospital. She shows a more thorough examination and, possibly, early childbirth by cesarean sections.

  • PSPs are higher than 3.0. Such results may say that the child's condition is critical, it is threatened with intrauterine death, which can occur at any time. A woman is hospitalized as an urgent manner, the emergency cesarean section is shown to save the baby.

Stress and non-stress tests

The usual KTG, which is held during pregnancy, is considered a non-stroke test. But sometimes the situation requires a more attentive and detailed study of the peculiarities of the work of a small children's heart, for example, with the unsatisfactory result of the previous CTG or if the defects of the child's heart are suspected, then stressful tests are carried out.

In this case, the study is technically carried out in the same way as always, but before fixing the sensors on the stomach of the future mother, it can be asked to go up and down the stairs to the stairs, deeply breathing deeply and episodically delay the breath during cardiotockography.

Sometimes, to understand how the heart and the nervous system of the child will behave in a stressful situation, a woman is made of oxytocin - a preparation causing a cutting muscles.

An unresponsive test eliminates provoking external factors. A woman, on the contrary, is asked to calm down, conveniently sit down, do not think about anything anxious and bad. Analyzed by how the heart of the kid reacts to its own movements, That is, the number of accelerations is calculated.

Deciphering the stress KTG is the task of specialists, only the conclusion of the analyzer program will not be enough, doctors necessarily make a correction for a stress factor. A good result is a negative non-pass test, during which the kid "shows" two or more activation in 40 minutes.

Possible problems

The problems that indirectly designate such a survey as cardiotocography may be different - from congenital defects of development to pregnancy pathologies or external adverse factors that the woman itself is exposed. But they will all be accompanied by one of the following deviations.

Tachycardia

You can talk about this condition if the base heartbeat rhythm exceeds the established norms, and the duration of the demonstration of the violation is 10 minutes and more. There is an increase in the heart rate to 160-179 shots per minute. The heavy form of tachycardia is in question when the heart of the kid is knocking with a frequency of 180 beats per minute and above.

The most common cause is hypoxia of the fetus. With a shortage of oxygen, the child begins to experience stress, his hormonal background changes, because of this, the heart begins to knock faster. But this is only at an early stage of hypoxia. With severe oxygen deficiency, the kid behaves differently.

Tachycardia is often a companion of an intrauterine infection that struck the baby. Almost like a born baby, the crumb in my mother's belly can get sick. Immune defense will start working, and despite the fact that it is still very weak, the temperature will rise, and this will also immediately affect the heart rate. The cause of tachycardia is a child can be the unimportant well-being of his parent. If the woman rises the temperature, then the child beats the heart stronger.

Also on the frequency of heart abbreviations of the fetus are influenced by medicines that take his mother and any violations of its hormonal background.

Bradycardia

If cardiotokography shows that the heart of the baby for 10 minutes and more beats with a frequency below 100 shots per minute, doctors diagnose bradycardia. This is a dangerous symptom that may indicate a heavy noncompensated hypoxia at which the oxygen deficiency is already critical, the child has no strength to move. If the slowdown in the heart rate is fixed on KTG at the time of birth, there is nothing dangerous in it, because Reducing the cardiac rhythm, the baby reacts to passing through the birthway When his head turns out to be pressed.

Hypoxia fruit

Oxygen starvation can be very dangerous for a child on any time, it leads to disorders of the central nervous system, and sometimes to the fetal death. Early hypoxia, while it is still compensated by the protective mechanisms of the kid organism, tachycardia, and late hypoxia, hypoxia at the launched stage - bradycardia. In addition, KTG shows low variability, identical periodic activations, sinusoidal rhythm, monotony.

PSPs at this state of affairs is within 1.1 - 3.0. And according to Fisher, the child's condition is estimated at 5-8 points depending on the severity of the oxygen deficiency. In severe hypoxia, an urgent delivery is shown, regardless of what time is pregnant - at 37 weeks or only at 33 weeks. There will be more chances to survive outside my mother's womb.

Can it be wrong?

Cardiotocography does not apply to high-precision diagnostic research. Its accuracy is about 90%, much moreover depends on how correctly the survey is conducted, as well as the doctor's experience and whether it will be able to correctly interpret the results. In general, KTG is decrypted by everyone equally. But here are the reasons that led to the deviations of certain regulatory values ​​can be very diverse.

Therefore, it is impossible to refer to the conclusion of the CTG as truth in the last instance. The survey gives only a common picture. But to confirm or disprove negative results, and only additional diagnosis will help to establish the reasons for the unusual behavior of the baby.

These are usually laboratory blood tests, ultrasound scanning, USDG (ultrasound with doppler).

The erroneous CTG may be due to the fact that the woman did not prepare for the passage of the examination - came the unfavorable, experiencing due to personal problems. The dubious truthfulness of the CTG is seen in the event that the pregnant woman took any medicines and did not warn the doctor about it, because some drugs may noticeably increase and lower the heartbeat not only mom, but also the fetus. An erroneous CTG may be in the event of a malfunction of the equipment on which the study is carried out.

All dubious results are so necessarily rechecked by repeated CTGs, as well as with the help of ultrasound. All bad results of the CTG rechecked, but already in the hospital, not to risk the health of the mother and the child.

With the help of KTG (cardiotokography), the doctor has the opportunity to evaluate the condition of the baby, the work of his heart and get the overall picture of the development of pregnancy. This procedure is appointed by each pregnant woman every week after the onset of 32 pregnancy weeks. The last time this procedure can be carried out even in the maternity hospital.

What is ktg fetal

KTG is one of the diagnostic methods, as a result of which the child's heartbeat is checked, its motor activity and the level of reduction in the uterine muscles. The purpose of the procedure is to identify the hypoxia of the fetus, its anemia, the presence of anomalies in the activities of the heart (there are also congenital deviations).

During the CTG, it is also possible to obtain information about the state of the uterus, namely to define a small breeder or fetoplacentage failure. Modern drugs have the opportunity to examine two children at once, which is very convenient in cases where the woman has twins.

According to plan, the CTG is appointed from 32 weeks of pregnancy, since until that time the fruit has already formed well in terms of cardiac activity. Only starting from this period you can determine the condition of the baby depending on its heartbeat.

If there is a need, then the procedure can be done from 20 weeks, as pathological rhythms are recognized from that time.

CTG Fruit

Indications for the diagnosis of the fetus are determined by the leading obstetrician-gynecologist

Features of the procedure

During the procedure, the toddler motor activity is evaluated. If such manifestations are not observed or the child simply sleeps, then the diagnosis will be transferred to another time. Therefore, future mothers in this case there is no reason to worry - this is a normal phenomenon and the procedure will be done another time. The procedure does not harm any harm for the child, so the amount of it does not matter - KTG can be made an infinite number of times.

KTG make in such cases:

  • On the ultrasound, changes in the placenta were revealed;
  • There are suspicions that the development of the fetus is delayed;
  • A scar of the uterine tissues was found;
  • The doctor suspects the possibility of birth before the term;
  • Gestosis;
  • Pregnancy was transferred;
  • Doctors observe a decrease in the activity of the fetus;
  • In a pregnant woman, chronic diseases were discovered;
  • The number of accumulating waters has decreased or increased;
  • There are changes in those data that were obtained during the last CTG;
  • At ultrasound, a campus of a baby cord was found.
CTG Fruit

The procedure is fully safe for both the mother and the child

Before the procedure is not required somehow especially prepare. The only one, the procedure lasts for quite a long time (about an hour). During this time, a woman can get hungry or wanted to the toilet. Therefore, before holding the CTG, it should be a little snack and go to the toilet. The procedure is carried out in the middleside position or side (it is impossible to completely lie). The sensor is attached to the stomach. From it information in electronic form is transmitted to the block. The doctor carefully examines all the data and writes about this conclusion.

Suspicious cardiotokography

Visually cardiotocograms are interpreted by different methods. To obtain a standard assessment, the rules and rules that were established by the FIGA Committee in 1985 should be adhered. In this case, the indicators are divided into several types:

  • normal;
  • suspicious;
  • Pathological.

For suspicious KTG characteristic such indicators:

  • the presence of a basal rhythm of 110-100 beats per minute and 150-170 shots;
  • Basal rhythm should have an amplitude of 5-10 shots per minute;
  • in 40 minutes of research was not detected by activation;
  • Sporadic decelerations are observed (not heavy).

If a woman does not understand what the KTG means a suspicious KTG, then she should not panic immediately, but it is better to turn to the doctor for explanations. This type of cardiographography gives a doctor's reason to prescribe an additional stress test, which will more accurately appreciate the condition of the child.

Is it harmful to the body of a pregnant woman

CTG is an absolutely safe procedure for both young mom and for her baby. During its holding there are no contraindications and side effects. The procedure is painless, during her woman does not introduce any medicines, no skin piercing occurs or its damage.

CTG Fruit

The doctor will explain the patient that the procedure is safe for both the mother and the baby

CTG can be carried out at least every day. Usually it is prescribed every week, and sometimes (if no deviations or complications are observed) - periodically. Pregnant women should not be abandoned by the procedure, because if some violations or development deviations were discovered in a timely manner, it can help you save life.

KTG can be held in the nearest female consultation or maternity hospital. It is important to conduct such a survey for all pregnant women, as this will help prevent the occurrence of diseases or pathologies from the baby, and sometimes - and save him life.

Features Methodology

ктг плода

CTG Hearts Futal - Study, which is based on the principle of Doppler. The device simultaneously registers the power of the cutting of the uterus and the cardiac activity cycles. Both parameters are displayed with the scope of paper tape. CTG Fruit Displayed on paper thermal . The drawings are a curve line and combining them in certain positions a doctor will see the features of the state of the baby: its mobility and heartbeat.

Ktg fetal during pregnancy Can be held:

  1. Outdoor way. In this case, the sensor fixing the palpitation of the fetus is applied to the mother's belly, at the site of the fetus, usually at the navel level. The second is to the right uterine corner. It is from here that the wave of abbreviations of the body begins. The third sensor holds the patient itself in the hands of her task, click on the button as soon as she feels the movement of the child.
  2. Internal way. This technique is performed during childbirth. A special spiral electrode through the vagina is imposed on the baby head. He records cardiac rhythm performance. The cutting of the uterus registers another, intraminal electrode. However, the internal KTG is rarely used. Even during childbirth, it is more convenient to observe with the help of outdoor CTG.

When childly, it is very important to use the capabilities of the CTG. So the doctor will track the state of the baby and, if the kid's own forces are not enough, it will definitely come to the aid. This method will allow to evaluate, the contractions increase or go down. Then the gynecologist will know exactly whether there is a weakness of generic activity and whether it is necessary to apply a generic stimulation.

Types of research KTG

Unresolus method CTG Fruit - This is a record of indicators from the electrodes in the usual life situation. This is an absolutely non-invasive study, it does not affect the state of the baby or the mother's body. Usually the doctor is enough such a test, because it carries all the necessary information.

CTG Fruit

If during non-stroke ktg, ambiguous results were obtained, the doctor may decide on special functional samples or CTG stress. At the same time, a small amount of oxytocin is introduced into the body of the mother - a substance that causes cuts from the uterus. You can also use a mammar method when artificially irritate nipples and oxytocin also occurs from it.

These tests become a model of childbirth. CTG indicators help to evaluate how much the physiology of the baby changes and will not be an unbearable generic load for him.

There are functional samples - special external influences that lead to the fact that the baby intensifies the heartbeat. The doctor assesses how stable heart rhythm. These samples include:

  • Acoustic test - reaction to a certain sound from the outside;
  • Palpation - mechanical effect on the kid through the abdominal wall of the mother's belly. The midwife is trying to gently shift the head or lower back of the fetus. At such an impact, the kid also reacts with the increase in heartbeat.

Now stressful tests are rare enough. As a rule, such research will conduct only an experienced physician with high qualifications. In this case, even a stress test will not bring any inconvenience to the future mother and baby.

When the study is most informative

As a rule, examination with the help of KTG is taken from 32 weeks of pregnancy. Although from 26 weeks, the method can be quite effective in terms of diagnosis.

To get accurate information, you need to take into account the time of day when the baby in the womb is most active. These are two time intervals:

  • from 9 to 14 hours;
  • from 19 to 24 hours.

So that the results of the CTG were accurate, it is impossible:

  • To study on an empty stomach. The body that is in a state of hunger will demonstrate an absolutely different reaction than in a stable state with a satisfied food requirement;
  • Research immediately after meals. At this time, the main task of the body is digestion. Optimal time for KTG - 1.5-2 hours after meals;
  • enter in front of the glucose procedure;
  • use sedatives or magnesia;
  • undergo a procedure after tested stress;
  • smoke or drink alcohol;
  • Bring out the study immediately after physical activity - walking on the stairs, sharp movements affecting the heart rhythm.

It is difficult to conduct diagnostics in full women, because a significant adhesive layer dries a child heartbeat.

You can get incorrect data if the sensor is incorrectly imposed. It can register the pulsation of the mother's aorta, then the rhythm of heartbeats will reach 65-80 beats per minute.

Preparation for KTG

The study passes ambulatory, in women's consultation. It does not hurt and absolutely harmless. Therefore, it should not be worried. After all, KTG is a mandatory procedure that will allow you to assess your baby's condition and in case of problems to support his strength.

Before carrying out cardiotokography it is necessary:

  1. Sleep well. If Mom is calm and sufficiently rested, the baby will feel good and demonstrates good results.
  2. Eating before leaving home. Calculate how much time will take the road to a female consultation and take food in such a quantity so that in the gynecologist's office goes back, but without feeling the feeling of suggestion.
  3. Come to female consultation a little earlier than the designated time. Relax, restore your breath, relax - your heart rhythm will be restored.
  4. You may need to visit the toilet. By time KTG will take at least 30 minutes, prepare for this in advance so as not to experience inconvenience and not worry.
  5. Smoking and drink alcohol - neither the day before, nevertheless before carrying out the procedure.

What shows the CTG fetus

CTG Fruit

The state of the fetus doctor will appreciate the following CTG data:

  • cardiac frequency;
  • Basal rhythm. This is the number of toddler heartbeats at the time between the fights (as a rule, within 10 minutes). The norm according to this indicator is 120-160 shots per minute;
  • Basal rhythm variability. This is the height of heart rate changes, it should vary within 5-25 shots;
  • Akelerations. Short acceleration of heart cuts for 15 seconds or more (or 15 heart impacts). These are sudden cardiac abbreviations. They must be present within 10 minutes, from two or more times, as a reaction to the movement of the fetus;
  • Decomleration. Reducing the frequency of heart cuts for 15 seconds (or 15 heart impacts). Normally, they should not be at all or attend to be unbelieving and being shallow. A long reduction in heart rate indicates pathological conditions.

How to decipher the results of ktg

Decoding the results of KTG It is conducted on the system of special points. Calculation is conducted in the amount of heart abbreviations.

By the parameter of the basal rhythm are accrued:

  • 0 points per frequency less than 100 or more than 180 heart abbreviations;
  • 1 point if the heart rate is between 100-120 or 160-180 beats;
  • 2 points - if located between 120 and 180 blows.

Variability is estimated:

  • 0 points with a height of less than 3 shots;
  • 1 point with a height of 3-6 shots;
  • 2 points with a height of more than 6 shots.

Accelerations are evaluated:

  • 0 points in case there are no hearts of cardiac abbreviations;
  • 1 point - if the raises occur regardless of the activity of the fetus;
  • 2 points - if they appear only on occasion to occasion, one is one, as a reaction to the movement of the fetus.

Decomlerations are estimated in this way:

  • 0 points with late, long and non-systemic reductions in heart rate;
  • 1 point with late, short-term and variable reductions in heart rate;
  • 2 points, if there are no reductions in the frequency of cardiac abbreviations.

In addition, the amplitude of the cardiac oscillation graph is estimated per minute. This happens on these criteria:

  • 0 points for 5 oscillations (sinusoidal form);
  • 1 score for 5-9 or more than 25 oscillations;
  • 2 points for 10-25 oscillations.

Then the total number of points is calculated. By this parameter, you can draw the following conclusions:

  • 8-10 points indicate the normal development of the baby;
  • 5-7 points may indicate the initial signs of hypoxia. It - suspicious Ktg fruit . Usually in such a situation during the day it is necessary to carry out another study. And then additionally - evaluation of blood flow in the uterus and placenta, ultrasound, assessment of the biophysical profile.
  • 4 points and less is a difficult state. Emergency hospitalization is needed, intensive therapy or delivery.

In many clinics, when conducting cardiotokography, the equipment independently calculates the status of the fetus. Normally, it equals 1.0. If the PSP exceeds the norm by 0.5-1, it is regarded as the initial indicators of the deterioration of health and is adjusted by therapeutic treatment. If the indicator is higher by 1.01 or 2 units - the future mother must be hospitalized and treated under a hospital. Higher PSP values ​​- an indication for emergency delivery.

Cardiotocography is not a high-precision study, its accuracy depends on the experience of the doctor, the correct interpretation of the results and how correctly a survey was conducted. The study gives a common picture, and confirm or refute the data obtained, and only additional diagnostic procedures can establish the cause of unusual infant behavior.