On the expanses of the domestic Internet will be difficult to find a person who has never heard the quotation "I like the smell Napalm in the morning" from the movie "Apocalypse Today". This quote is brightly characterized by a film hero, however, this is not about the popular dramatic work today, but just about the most ill-fated weapons called "Napalm".
It's time to figure out what it really is.
There are quite a few films about the war, where the principle of this weapon is reflected quite reliably. Someone probably even heard than he (Napalm) is in its essence - this is thickened gasoline. This explanation is true, however, is a strong simplification that does not allow to understand the entire essence.
Most people know that Napalm was widely used by Americans during the War in Vietnam. However, this weapon has appeared long before. Invented it in 1942 at Harvard University under the leadership of Professor Louise Fizera in the framework of the Fuel Improvement Program. In the two world wars, flamets are usually refueling with ordinary gasoline, which had one huge drawback - low viscosity. For this reason, the jet was very sprayed and quickly burned. The military wanted to improve the efficiency of flamethos.
The thickeners for a flame retardant mixture knew even then, however, they were used very deficient at that time (especially in the conditions of war) rubber. "Harvardians" came up with a new thickener on the basis of palmitic and naphthenic acids. Actually the name "Napalm" and is an abbreviation from the names "Naphthenic ACID" and "Palmitic Acid". The latter is easy to get on an industrial scale. It contains even in milk, fat, palm oil and many other products.
The thickener of acids is mixed with a combustible fraction: gasoline or kerosene. The thickener is added to the fraction in a fraction of from 8 to 14%, as a result of which the combustible mixture is obtained, which gives a much more roast and resistant flame. And the most important thing is that thanks to the new thickener, the combustible faction has become better to penetrate into secluded places and stick literally to everything that is on its path. Given the huge combustion temperature of 500-900 degrees Celsius, knocking down the Flame Napalm is almost not real without a special neutralizer.
This "awesome" piece of the US military in 1942 thought to refill not only flamets for infantry and technology, but also aviation bombs. In 1944, the US Air Force already bombed by the German fuel warehouses in France, as well as Japanese fortifications on the islands in the Pacific Ocean. On March 10, 1945, Tokyo bombed with the use of Napalm, as a result of which thousands of people were killed, primarily civilians. Applied napalm and during the war in Korea in 1950-1953, during the first Indochinese war, the same was not Americans, but the French, and the French.
Natalm was banned by the UN Convention only in 1980. However, no adoption of the conventions stopped the country and primarily the United States from the further development of this type of weapon.
What Napalm is, many Soviet people learned only in the sixties, watching teleports from the warring Vietnam. Scary burns, affected and dead children, burning cities and villages caused a fair perturbation. Even removed from afar, the aircraft looked terribly. Above the jungle "Phantom" or "Skaykhok" came to the combat course, at some point from his belly, a large cigar-like tank was separated, similar to an additional fuel capacity, he randomly tumbled until the earth was touching, then burst, and from It was growing real sea of fire, from which there was no salvation ... In general, Napalm is a terrible weapon.
Idea and embodiment
In everything related to the ways of destroying themselves, people show ingenuity clearly deserving better use. The first step towards improving the effectiveness of the murder, except for rapid rifle and artillery lesions, flamets, ranks, stationary and installed on special tanks. The idea is simple: fuel liquid like water from the hose should be directed to the enemy. But in this simple case, his catch was buried. First, you need to get, and secondly, to complicate the process of quenching as much as possible. Gasoline is good, but lightning lightning. Try the dieg. It is necessary for some such substance so that with the ease of ignition, a lot of heat has allocated for a long time. By 1942, this task was in general terms solved by Harvard University specialists who worked in a group of Dr. L. Fizhera on the task of the USACC (the chemical corps of the American army). Soon the Japanese, who kept the defense of Tinian, found out what napalm is. True, not all of them could tell about him.
The overall technological idea was to add to the main combustible substance of ingredients, slowing the combustion, increasing the viscosity and increase the ability to adhere. Very good for these purposes, rubbing is suitable: he is sticky, and viscous, and dissolves perfectly, and burns, and it hurts roads. This mixture of palmitic and naphteinic acid salts was very successful. The composition of Nalalm and gave him a name, it doesn't have anything in common with the Russian word "Fill", and is formed from the first letters of chemical additives that make ordinary gasoline much deadly.
The result of the development efforts has become a certain substance, in its consistency more or less thick, up to the glandness. The combustion temperature reached the eight hundred degrees Celsius. Additives amounted to about a tenth of the total. It was successfully used in Europe, in battles with German troops and their allies, and on the Pacific TVD against the Japanese.
What is Napalm-B
Progress is impossible to stop, especially in the field of means of defeat. Here in education and medicine ... But now it is not about that.
Already by the beginning of the Korean War, the composition of Napalm was supplemented with new components, significantly improved its effectiveness. First, chemical stability during long-term storage was increased, the possibility of separation of fractions was eliminated. Secondly, it began to burn much brighter and hot (up to 1500 ° C). And thirdly, the most important thing is that this product is capable of sticking to everything in the world. If some item is poured with water or sprinkle with snow, then it is even better (that is, worse for the subject). Alkaline metals are included in the composition of Napalm, which is known from the school course of chemistry, when moisture gets, they simply explode. As a thickener in Napalme-B, an ordinary polystyrene is used, dissolved in benzene. All this hellish mixture together with sodium or potassium is added to gasoline, is stirred, and everything is ready. Even the steel burns. By the way, and inexpensive.
Common sense and ban
Against the so-called Vietcong (National Front of Liberation), the US Army used almost all his arsenal, with the exception of weapons of mass lesion. However, knowing and understanding what napalm is, it is difficult to refuse the idea that it can be attributed to this category. For this substance, it is completely indifferent, whether it is in the zone of its use of a hundred, thousand or more living beings, it will burn everything that falls on. It was for this reason that in 1980 in the UN was approved by the Convention prohibiting Napalm. The use of incendiary weapons was recognized by the barbaric method of warfare. But not everyone was injured by the quiet voice of the mind. But for this it was worth only to imagine himself or someone from his relatives under Napalm Livni. Probably, fantasy is not enough ...
The Convention on the prohibition of use Nalalma adopted 99 countries of the world, more than half of all presented in the UN. Among them, Russia (then RSFSR), Ukraine (HSSR), Belarus (BSSR) and all Europe (San Marino and Andorra Armies do not have, therefore, in the process of constant rates, they did not participate in the process. Countries in a state of war or waiting for it, from signing or ratification abstained. Among them, the United States, Israel, Turkey, the Republic of Korea, Afghanistan, Vietnam, Sudan, Nigeria and some others. After the collapse of the USSR, four former republics (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan) also did not join the Convention (the Third Protocol).
Applied by Napalm Salvadoran Army (Civil War, 1984), Argentina (Folkland, 1982), Iraq (against Iran's troops, 1980), as well as the United Kingdom (during the Buri in the Desert "1991). As it often happens in the war, the strikes did not always turn out to be quite accurate, which was suffering from civilians.
In search of a successful brand, product manufacturers sometimes use words well known to ordinary people, but in another context. For example, a means for dealing with cockroaches once called "Koba" (party numeral I. V. Stalin), meaning, obviously, his mercilessness to enemies. Among other samples of household chemicals can be found and "napalm" from weeds. This, if you believe the advertising annotation, effective herbicide, a real find for agricultural producers and owners of country sites. Its importantly, its dignity, as in the real napalm, is strongly holding the substance on the surface of plants and resistance to precipitation. How ethically is such a name? To judge consumers. Perhaps not everyone remembers the Vietnamese War.
What nalp is, many Soviet citizens have learned only in the 1960s, depending on television reports from the warring Vietnam. The affected people, terrible burns, the dead children, the burning settlements caused a fair indignation of citizens. Evenaviation
The blow, which was removed from afar, looked terrible. Over the Vietnamese jungle on the combat course, "phantoms" or "Skyhoki" went out, at some point in time, a large cigar-like tank was separated from their belly, which was similar to the fuel tank. Then, this tank is randomly tumbling in the sky until the earth concerned. At that moment he burst and the whole sea of fire was growing out of it, from which it was impossible to escape.Ban
Napalm was prohibited on the basis of a document, which entered into legal force on December 2, 1983.
By January 2012, this document ratified 99 countries of the world, including Russia.
The main prohibiting document: Protocol 3 (on the prohibition or restriction of the use of incendiaryarms
). This protocol was an addition to the United Nations adopted in 1980 on the prohibition or limitation of the use of specific species of ordinary weapons.
The subject of the prohibition of Protocol 3 was the use of Napalm and other types of incendiary weapons against civilians.Napalm
Gasoline as fuel has a very large energy density - a sufficiently filled beer bottle is enough so that the car weighing more than 1 ton can drive 5, or even more kilometers. However, if you splash it on thick wet lamps, the fire will flash, but you may not work with the fire. Fire will quickly calm down. As an incendiary, just gasoline was not suitable. The ideal means became napalm, which is a gasoline (sometimes a different type of fuel), connected to a thickener, as well as a variety of additives, the main purpose of which is to increase the combustion temperature of the mixture.
The resulting mixture is able to adhere to different surfaces, even located vertically, it also burns much longer than normal gasoline. Napalm as a weapon came up with Americans during the Second World War. Initially, natural rubber was used as a thickener for the mixture. But since Southeast Asia (the main producer of the Jewie Juice) was occupied by Japan, he had to look for a replacement.
The word "Napalm" it is no coincidence that the word "palm". Instead of rubber, it was decided to use a mixture based on aluminum salts of fatty acids - naphthenoic and palmitine. Salt data have a consistency, which is similar to soap. Palmitic acid at one time was highlighted by scientists from the oil of an ordinary coconut walker, growing on the palm trees (from here and such a name). The word Napalm was also derived from the first two syllables of the names of the acids used.
Napalm was first created in 1942-43 at Harvard University, the head of this project was Professor Luis F. Fizer. The professor with his colleagues was engaged in mixing the powder of fatty acid salts with gasoline, after which the mixture turned into a sticky and viscous liquid, which had brown color.
For the first time in combat conditions, new weapons were tested on July 17, 1944 when applying aviation strikes on German fuel warehouses located near the city of Kutanz (France). After that, the novelty was tested on another theater of hostilities - in the Pacific Ocean against the Japanese troops. Napalm was used to smoke Japanese soldiers from dandels and frills in the occupied islands. It was used by Napalm and during the special cruelty of the bombing of the German city of Dresden, which occurred in February 1945: Unbearable heat in an old town's unpleasant fires literally melted the body of people.
However, after the end of the Second World War, Napalm's recipe was significantly changed. After the end of the conflict in Korea, a new species was created in the interests of the American army - Napalm-b. In this form, the napalm palmitic acid was no longer used. The new fire mixture by 33% consisted of gasoline, by 21% of benzene and 46% of polystyrene. New weapons were much stronger than the previous one. Napalm-B burned significantly longer - not 15-30 seconds, and up to 10 minutes. It was almost impossible to remove it from the skin, while during the burning he did not just live it, but also caused a man a terrible pain (the temperature of his burning was 800-1200 degrees Celsius). At the same time, in the process of burning, the Napalm was very actively identified by carbon monoxide and carbonate, burning all oxygen in the district, which gave the opportunity to strike enemy soldiers who were able to hide in dugouts, bunkers, caves. These unfortunate died from choking and terrible heat.
Napalm was widely used in traditional ammunition: aviation bombs, artillery shells, mines, manual grenades, in mechanized and wearable (knapted) flamethroughs, incendiary cartridges. Napalm was used to destroy the live strength and equipment of the enemy, creating fires. It was widely used in many conflicts of the XX century, starting from World War II. It was used by American aviation in Korea in 1950-1953 and especially widely during the War in Vietnam in 1964-1973, he also used the Turkish army to suppress the Rods of Kurds.
In Vietnam against Vietkong (National Front of the Country Liberation), the American army was widely used by almost all his arsenal of means of defeat, with the exception of only nuclear weapons. At the same time, the napalm himself could be attributed to the weapons of mass lesion. For Nalalm, it was completely indifferent how many living beings are in the zone of his defeat, he is ready to burn everything that will fall on. Understanding this, in the UN, and adopted a document that prohibited the use of Napalm. The use of incendiary weapons was officially recognized by the barbaric method of warfare.
Although gasoline was usually used as a liquid fuel when creating Napalm, it could be different. He depended on the fuel and thickener brand used, changing from absolutely colorless or transparent liquid to brown or pink. All napalm mixes are very easily flammorated and burned, creating a temperature of up to 1200 degrees Celsius at the time of burning (calorific value reached 10,000 kcal / kg). The speed with which the mixture burned out, largely depended on the thickener used and the degree of thickening. The density of most mixtures reached 0.8-0.9 g / cm3. When a mixture of light metals (magnesium, sodium) or phosphorus can be obtained by "supernapalm". This type of Napalm is most actively flammable on wet surfaces, as well as in the snow (that is, it was particularly effective in wet jungle or in the territory of the Nordic countries, for example, Russia).
Napalm is very easily flammable, but at the same time slowly burns (individual clots continue to burn up to 10 minutes). At the same time, the highest combustion temperature of 800-1200 degrees is achieved in the first minute, and then gradually decreases. The combustion rate of napalm mixtures can be adjusted using additives in the form of wood flour, asphalt, as well as a variety of resins. At the same time, the effect of the use of Nallum was impossible to predict, since the impassive effect of the mixture was distributed uncontrollable. A huge number of cases are known when the use of Nalalm has suffered from no obey civilians.
Due to the huge combustion temperature, this substance simply leaned out all oxygen in a radius of several meters from the fire focus. In addition, the use of Napalm led to suffocation, which occurred in people from the toxic products formed during its combustion, for example, carbon monoxide. All this was a serious threat even for people who were in shelters at the time of strike. Since the napalm is lighter than water, it does not sink, floating on its surface, and does not quit with water. Intelligence of only 1 gram Napalm on human skin is able to cause a very serious defeat. Napalm has an extremely strong moral and psychological impact on people, suppressing their ability to have active resistance. The fact that the infantry is afraid of fire was established in the years of the First World War. The infantrymen could accurately survive artillery shelling and bombing, but the use of flamethos often plunged them into horror.
Taking into account the strong striking effect and unsocuing flame spread, in 1983 and was adopted Protocol 3 (on the prohibition or limitation of the use of incendiary weapons), which was an addition to the Signed UN Convention on the Prohibition or Restriction of the Use of Specific Ordinary Weapons. This protocol put Napalm outside the law. But not all countries have signed the document. It was signed by a little less than 100 states, while in the United States adopted a report with the reservation, leaving the right to use incendiary weapons during attacks of military facilities located among the "clusters of civilians", if such attacks would entail minimal human sacrifices. As a result, everything rests on the definition of which victims can be considered minimal. It is worth noting that some of the former Soviet republics did not join the protocol. So, after the collapse of the USSR, the protocol did not sign the 4 former republics: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.Sources of information: http: //www.popmech.ru/technologies/13660-oruzhie-vne-zakona-10-zapreshchennykh-vooruzheniy/#fullhttp: //fb.ru/article/147094/chto-takoe-napalm-primenenie i-sostav-napalmahttp: //ognemet.net/51a.php
World War II put the task before scientists - find fuel, which is easily flammable and burns long. Gasoline did not fit, because the effect of insignificant: it quickly spreads to the wide area and also quickly burns. The reason for such an unsuitability was the low viscosity indicator of gasoline. In 1942, at Harvard University, researchers of this issue have found a decision.
History of origin
Dr. Luis Fizer and the US Army Chemical Service under His leadership, exploring the fuel issues, were able to find a component thickener, which today is known for us as Napalm. This significant point, as mentioned above, occurred in 1942. To understand what napalm is, it is necessary to consider its composition.
The development of a jelly fuel, which was conducted in the pre-war time, were reduced to the fact that rubber needed as a thickener. At that time it was a very deficient product. After Harvard studies, it became clear that naphthenetes and aluminum palm fitters can be used as a thickener. In the mixture with gasoline, the well-known fuel napalm is obtained.
What is this fuel?
In principle, each military knows what napalm is and how to use it. But this fuel fell under the ban. The UN in 1980 adopted the Convention prohibiting the use of certain types of weapons and incendiary mixtures, to which applies and attacked against the civilian population. By 2005, 99 countries signed this convention. These include all European states, with the exception of Andorra and San Marino. Russia and Ukraine also included the Convention.
The Convention and the protocol on the incendiary mixtures that are prohibited
Understanding what napalm and other combustible mixtures used for military operations, there are countries that signed the Convention, but did not sign the Protocol III, in which it is about combustible. These are 6 countries: Monaco, Israel, Turkey, Turkmenistan, South Korea and the United States. Another 6 countries did not ratify the Convention, but signed the Protocol. This is Sudan, Nigeria, Iceland, Egypt, Vietnam, Afghanistan. There are those who have not joined the Convention among the CIS countries, and have not signed the Protocol III. These are Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan.
Knowing what napalm is, the United States widely used it in hostilities. They used this fuel in fire fugas, aviation bombs, flamethroughs (wrought and mechanized), incendiary cartridges affecting lively power. This fuel was used to create fires and in other combat techniques.
The United States first applied Napalm for weapons in that very 1942. But it was widely used on July 17, 1944. It was the fall of fighters (bombers) of the United States for the fuel German warehouse in France (Kutanza). After applying Napalm, the scorched ground remains, and all the living around is increasing. Israel and Iraq also used fuel. The implications of Napalm is impossible to predict. It amazes all the surrounding space uncontrollable. That is why the Convention and the corresponding Protocol on combustible mixtures were adopted. A sufficient number of cases are known when, after applying Nalalm, not only the scorched land remains, but also the civilians are also dying or suffering.
Napalm fuel is named from the first letters of the names of acids: naphthenova and palmitic. In percentage, the mixture is such: from 89 to 93% of gasoline and from 7 to 11% thickener (aluminum acid salts).
The composition of the thickener of aluminum acids includes:
- Naphthenic acid - 25%;
- palmitic acid (from coconut oil) - 50%;
- Oleic acid - 25%;
The thickener in the finished form looks like a grayish or pink powder. He will have a soap consistency on the touch. Metal hermetically sealed banks are used for storage of thickeners.
Produced in the US Types of thickeners
The United States produces several stamps of this substance, which contains salts of organic acids:
- M2 - dehydrated silica gel (5%) and thickener from a mixture of aluminum salts of organic acids (95%);
- M4 is a two-axis aluminum iso-acidic acid soap (98%) and a substance for the inadmissibility of coming (2%).
The main table of the thickener used in the Ground Forces of America is M4: 98% aluminum salt and 2% silica gel. As a spare option, use more expensive ML. It is in the discharge of a spare table, because it is prepared from natural material that is considered deficient.
Varieties of marks
Fuel, that apply Americans for incendiary air bombs, has a brand "1". The composition of Napalm includes: 92-96% gasoline and 4-8% ML thickener. Common napalm with gasoline content in the amount of 89-93% and 7-11% of the thickener, according to the consistency is a viscous liquid, up to such a state that resembles fluid studies. In density, the napalm mixtures have indicators: 0.8-0.9 g / cm³. The combustion temperature in such a fuel is 900-1200 ° C, and the burning time is from 5 to 10 minutes. The viscous napalm, the slower it burns.
In combat actions, there is such a thing as "burning with napalm", which means to step with fire, destroying all the living on its path. Particularly felt on Vietnam. On the ground, which passed this deadly weapon, nothing has grown anything for a long time.
This thickened gasoline, depending on the thickener and fuel brand, may have a different color: from transparent and completely colorless to pink and even brown. Weapon's creators went further and developed supernapals. This is a mixture into which light metals or phosphorus add. Such a substance very actively behaves on wet surfaces and is capable of self-ignition. That is why this fuel is especially effective when used in the jungle and north. Supernapalm can not be extinguished with water.
There is a variety of napalm called Piegel. It is obtained by adding powdered (it can be chips) magnesium, aluminum, as well as coal, nitrate, asphalt, inorganic oxidizing agent and other substances. This is a sticky mass having gray. It is pasty. The combustion temperature that pyrogels have, reaches a value of 1600 ° C. These substances are distinguished by the fact that they are heavier than water. The combustion process lasts only 1 to 3 minutes.
Such a flamethrow mix, as attacked, has increased stickiness. The composition sticks to the affected object, even if it is a vertical surface. Thus, this fuel ensures great ignition. The largest degree of adhesion to different types of surfaces (including wet) is endowed with the Napalm of the brand "B". Its composition: gasoline (25%), benzene (25%) and polystyrene thickener (50%). In the role of a thickener can also be isobutyl methacrylate and organic salts of two- and trivalent metals.
The speed with which such fuel is burning is adjustable by adding wood flour, asphalt and various resins. Separate bunches of flamethrower mixture are lit up to 4-5 minutes. After the combustion temperature reaches its maximum, it begins to decline. During the combustion process, a lot of heat is distinguished, and oxygen is absorbed from the air with high intensity. Such processes affect a significant increase in carbon monoxide concentration within the range of bomb. As you know, this substance has high toxicity.
Military technologies are noted that the mixtures viscous most satisfy the specifics of flamethrough. But they have a drawback: instability. The viscous mixtures change their properties depending on the ambient temperature (air temperature) and the season. Because of this, equipment with napalm can be used for 10 days, with the exception of the Napalm of the brand "B".
[English. Napalm, a reduction from Na (PHTHENIC ACID) - Naphthenic acid and Palm (ITIC ACID) - palmitic acid], combustible product used as incendiary and flameless mixtures. It turns out by adding to liquid fuel (gasoline, kerosene and other petroleum products) of a special thickener powder consisting of a mixture of aluminum salts of organic acids - naphthenic, palmitic et al. The amount of thickener with respect to the weight of the fuel is for gasoline (gasoline) 4-11 %, The consistency of the obtained N. varies from a viscous fluid to almost non-tech jelly. N. Easily flammable, it burns slowly, highlighting a thick caustic smoke (the temperature of the flame is 900-1100 ° C, depending on the type of fuel), adhesions well to the affected objects, including vertical surfaces. In the US, a new N. "B" is based on polystyrene, adhering even to wet surfaces. When introduced into N. magnesium and inorganic oxidants, the temperature of the flame of the resulting incendiary mixture rises to 1600 ° C. Even metal structures formed when burning slags. If you add alloys of light metal, the mixture is self-ignited on the target, especially when the goal is wet or covered with snow. Such mixtures are called supernapalm; They cannot be extinguished with water. N. Applied in aviation bombs, fireblocks, in Ranger (wearable) and mechanized flamers, incendiary cartridges for lesion of living force, military equipment and fire creation. For the first time, N. was adopted in the US Army in 1942 and was used by American aviation during the 2nd World War of 1939-45, in the aggressive war against the Korean people in 1950-53 and especially widely - in aggression against Vietnam in 1964-73.
M. I. Nostomolotov.
A source: Great Soviet Encyclopedia on gufo.me.
Values in other dictionaries
- Napalm -Napalm /. Morphemno-spell dictionary
- Napalm -Napalm -a; m. [English napalm] military. Sticky flammable mixture for incendiary bombs and flamets. Apply n. Burn the village with Napalm. ◁ Napalm, -ay ,y. N. Burn. N-Aya Bomb. ● developed in the United States in 1942; Widely used during hostilities in Vietnam (1964-1973). Explanatory dictionary of Kuznetsov
- Napalm -Flamented viscous mixture made of liquid fuel (for example, gasoline) and aluminum salts of organic acids; It is used in war as a means of defeating people and creating fire foci. Medical encyclopedia
- Napalm -Napalm, a, m. Viscous incendiary and a flank mixture. Burn with napalm. | arr. Napalm, Aya, Oe. Explanatory dictionary of Ozhegov
- Napalm --a, m. Flammable mixture for incendiary bombs and flamethos. [English. napalm] Small Academic Dictionary
- Napalm - Napalm (English Napalm) - incendiary viscous mixtures. Napalm is prepared from liquid fuel (gasoline, kerosene, etc.) and a special thickener powder (aluminum salts of organic acids - naphthenic, palmitic, etc.). Flame temperature up to 1600 ° C. Big Encyclopedic Dictionary
- Napalm -Napalm, pupil, viscous oil used for the manufacture of bombs and as a fuel for flamethrower. Appeared during the Second World War and was widely used by American troops during the War in Vietnam. When Napalm falls into the target, it spreads, Ignor everything, with which it comes into contact. Scientific and Technical Dictionary
- Napalm is borrowed from the English language, in which the word Napalm is formed by the first addition of the initial letters of the names of chemicals Na (PhTene) and Palm (iTate). Etymological Dictionary of Krylova
- Napalm-EF. Napalm, -A. Specographic dictionary of Lopatin
- Napalm -Napalm [English Napalm, from Na (PHTHENIC ACID) - Naphthenic acid and Palm (ITIC ACID) - palmitic acid] incendiary composition designed to defeat live strength and objects. Chemical encyclopedia
- Napalm -Napalm m. Viscous combustible product used as a flame retardant or incendiary mixture. Explanatory dictionary Efremova
Napalm was invented in 1942 for the needs of the US Army. He was actively used during World War II, and later - in Korea, Vietnam and Iraq. The first tests of the new weapons were carried out at the American Dagwei Polygon Proving Ciround, where a German-Japanese village was built specifically for this. As it was, reminds the portal AMUSING PLANET.
Napalm invented a group of chemists from Harvard. In 1942, Louis Fizer and his team developed a synthetic powder compound, which when mixed with gasoline turns into an extremely sticky and flammable substance. His name develops from the words "naphthenic acid" and "palmitic acid" - two main components of the new weapon
Pointer at the entrance to the "German-Japanese village". Photo © ksl-tv
The first tests took place on a football field near the Harvard School of Business. Later they were carried out at the landfill with abandoned agricultural buildings. But in order to understand how new weapons will be effectively in German and Japanese cities, Additional tests were required
Survived buildings on the test landfill. Photo © ksl-tv
In the spring of 1943, the US Army began the construction of detailed copies of typical German and Japanese houses on the Dagway test site in the Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah
View of the polygon from a bird's eye view. Photo © US Army
The German buildings were designed by Jewish architects Eric Mendelssohn and Waxmann Conrad. To make buildings as authentic as possible, the wood was imported from Murmansk: she was very similar to the one that was used in Germany. The rooms were furnished, typical of the working class. Hollywood designers were engaged in this.
German buildings. Photo © US Army
Two different types of buildings were built on the German side of the village. One simulated a typical building of the Rhine region with a slate on the roof. Other - with tiled, which was more characteristic of the central and northern regions of Germany
Observation post. Photo © ksl-tv
For the construction of the Japanese part of the village, the US Army hired Czechoslovak architect Antonina Raymond, who for several years worked in the country of the rising sun. Born in Russia Boris Laiming shared valuable knowledge gained in the study of fires in Japan
Erecting a Japanese building. Photo © japanairraids.
Japanese buildings had to tinker. Many materials, such as Japanese cedar and bamboo, were simply not available, so builders had to use analogs, for example, Russian spruce, mountain fir, rattan and agava
Napalm in business. Photo © japanairraids.
The testing of the test was fixed from the reinforced concrete bunker. As soon as the army received the necessary information, the flame is stewed and special brigades repaired the design so that they can again be adjusted
The obtained data was used in the massive bombers of Dresden and Tokyo in 1945, as a result of which more than 100 thousand people died